3-dig. codeSurnameNameCountryInstitutionAbstract TitleTopicAbstract
001RørvikPer MartinNorwaySINTEFThin film functional materials for low carbon green energyAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyThin films of functional materials are important components in many areas of green energy technology, such as solar cells, gas separation membranes, fuel cells and electrolysers. At SINTEF, we have equipment for deposition of thin films with thicknesses from 1 nm to 10 µm on up to 550 × 300 cm2 substrates. We use physical vapour deposition techniques such as magnetron sputtering, e-beam deposition, and pulsed laser deposition, chemical thin film techniques such as electroplating and chemical solution deposition, and thick film suspension techniques such as dip coating, spray coating and screen printing.
Palladium (Pd) membranes are a promising enabling technology for power generation and hydrogen production with CO2 capture. SINTEF has developed and patented a flexible technology to produce Pd-alloy membranes based on magnetron sputtered Pd-alloy films of thickness 1 – 10 µm that significantly improves flux and thereby reduces material costs.
Amorphous Si(1?x)Alx and Si(1?x)AlxHy are of interest for low-cost realization of optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells. SINTEF has developed a magnetron sputtering process for fabrication of these materials. By varying the Al and hydrogen content the optoelectronic properties could be tuned.
Proton-conducting BaZr0.85Y0.15O3 is used in high temperature fuel cells and electrolysers. SINTEF and the University of Oslo are developing fabrication processes using pulsed laser deposition at 600-700 °C for the functional electrode and electrolyte thin film layers, enabling lower cell resistance and lower fabrication temperatures.
002KELLICISUELAUKLONDON SOUTH BANK UNIVERSITYContinuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis for 2D Materials Design and Discovery in Energy Related Applications and BeyondAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyTwo-dimensional (2D) class of materials has attracted tremendous interest from both academia and industry due to their wealth of remarkable properties occurring as a result of their atomic thickness and infinite lateral dimensions. However, these 2D materials alone do not possess the properties that are required in a range of technological applications. Therefore, in order to enhance the conducting properties, it is important to blend it at the atomic level to get best performance. By simply decorating 2D materials with nanoparticles opens up other possibilities for new and unexpected phenomena. But, producing sheets of high quality 2D and strongly coupled homogeneous nanocomposites in an economical and environmentally benign way is still challenging. The current methods for making 2D nanomaterial composites (e.g. homogenization by mixing of inorganic nanoparticles and grinding) can be difficult in order to get very well dispersed nanoparticles in good electrical contact with the 2D nanosheets. Thus, better approaches are required.

Our approach for making 2D based nanocomposites uses a clean, rapid technology. It potentially enables new advanced 2D inorganic nanocomposite functional materials designed and engineered in a more unique and exotic manner by using superheated water with unusual properties. It utilises a green, rapid and Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis (CHFS) route for synthesis of 2D-inorganic nanocomposites with superior properties to those currently available. This will afford advanced functional materials with minimal structural and electronic defects. The CHFS process involves mixing a flow of supercritical water with a flow of water-soluble precursor(s) (generally metal salt/s) to give rapid synthesis and controlled growth of nanomaterials in a continuous manner. Furthermore, the use of CHFS represents a highly tunable medium, where composites can be engineered via process parameters, e.g. with temperature and pressure. This single step synthetic approach not only enables control over oxidation state of materials (e.g. graphene), but also offers an optimal route for homogeneously producing and depositing highly crystalline nanostructures into 2D-materials.
003GäblerJanGermanyFraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films ISTSelf-Sustaining water purification technology for rural African areasAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyObjectives
The overall goal of the SafeWaterAfrica project is to develop and apply a “Made in Africa” autonomous water purification system with a European low energy water treatment technology. The system will be designed to provide 300 people in rural areas with safe water. The project includes capacity building and business development so that system ownership is in the hands of the local communities.
Methodology
The system solution will consist of conventional water treatment methods for removal of inorganic contaminants and a low-energy technology, based on oxidation with diamond coated electrodes, for the removal of organic and microbial pollutants. The solution will include a photovoltaic power supply for off-grid operation.
Results
After the first ten months, the test sites in Mozambique and South Africa have been selected and water quality measurements have been started. Local stakeholders have been contacted. Experiments have been performed that prove the ability of the purification system to clean water with pollutions similar to those at the test sites. The prototype purification unit has been designed and is being built-up at CSIR in Pretoria.
Conclusions
The experimental results confirm the technological concept so that the implementation via a prototype, followed by two field demonstrators can be continued as planned. Many business contacts have been made so far, laying the ground for the development of business models and a successful exploitation.
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 689925.
004BagciBasak Asl?hanTurkeySELCUK UNIVERSITYCharacterization of Surface Modified Si Schottky Diodes by SAM MoleculesAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyBa?ak A. Ba?c?1, Mahmut Ku?1,2, Ö. Faruk Yüksel1,3
1Advanced Tech. Research and Application Center, Selçuk University, Konya, TURKEY
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Selçuk University, Konya, TURKEY
3Department of Physics, Selçuk University, Konya, TURKEY

The interface quality between metal and semiconductor surface has significant influence on performance of Schottky diodes. Beside, the interfacial layers such as SiO2, SnO2, organic compound obviously influence the electrical characteristics of Schottky structures [1-3].
In this work we modified Si surface with a serial small organic molecules for self assembled monolayers and investiagted the influence of modification on electrical caharcteristics of Schottky diodes. We used boronic acid dervatives as SAM molecules and P3HT as organic semiconductors.
The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Schottky device have been analyzed at room temperature. The electronic parameters such as the ideality factor and the barrier height are determined from the experimental data using standard current-voltage analysis method. In addition to the standard analysis, using the Cheung and Cheung method, the series resistance and some other electrical properties are calculated and a good agreement is obtained between the relevant diode parameters.

Acknowledements: This work is a part of the M.Sc. thesis preparing by Ba?ak A. Ba?c?.
References:
[1] E.H. Rhoderick, R.H. Williams, Metal–Semiconductor Contacts. 2nd ed., Clarendon, Oxford, 1988.
[2] Ö.F. Yüksel, N. Tu?luo?lu, H. ?afak, M. Ku?, J. Appl. Phys.113 (2013) 044507.
[3] N. Tu?luo?lu, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 254 (2007) 118-124
005GrochowskaKatarzynaPolandThe Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery Polish Academy of SciencesThe relation between titania nanotubes geometry and their photoactivity exhibited in neutral and basic electrolytesAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energySince the formation of highly ordered titania nanostructures known as vertically oriented nanotubes (TiO2NTs) has been achieved via electrochemical oxidation of Ti plate in fluoride containing solution, many efforts to control their geometrical parameters such as length, internal diameter and wall thickness have been undertaken. In order to obtain TiO2NTs of various morphology, the change of applied voltage, electrolyte composition and its temperature, the distance between electrodes during anodization as well as process duration have been proposed. Here, the controlled formation of self-ordered titania nanotubes via electrochemically driven etching in electrolyte with dissolved NH4F and different water content (5, 15, 30, 60 %) is presented. The raise of water in anodization bath affects the conductivity and diffusion of F- ions and finally significantly determines the growth of TiO2NTs. The SEM inspection revealed the decrease in length and increase in internal diameter of the tubes in accordance with increasing ratio of water:ethylene glycol. After calcination all samples possess anatase crystalline phase whereas their absorbance covers mainly UV-vis region that is related to the band-gap energy value and also the broad band with maximum at 650 nm resulting from the specific morphology can be observed. According to the results of electrochemical tests performed under sample exposition to the solar radiation, the highest photoactivity both in neutral and basic solution was exhibited by TiO2NTs formed in electrolyte with 30% of H2O.
This work received financial support from the Polish National Science Centre: Grant No. 2012/07/D/ST5/02269 and the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP).
006SgroiMauroItalyCentro Ricerche FIAT, Strada Torino 50, 10043 Orbassano (TO), ItalyAluminium doping of LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 spinel: a first principle study.Advanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyHighly efficient, ’’zero’’ emission electric vehicles are steadily becoming a global market trend. Customer demand for an acceptable single-charge driving range has promoted the development of high-energy and high-power lithium-ion batteries. Many research efforts were devoted to increase the specific energy of lithium-ion battery cells in order to extend the range of the electric vehicles, but most of the materials utilized for the cathode electrode are based on cobalt and are costly and toxic. The doped spinel LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4, a cheap and cobalt-free material, is characterized by a high working potential (4.7 V vs Li) and enables the production of very high energy density batteries. On the other hand, the high working potential promotes the decomposition of available organic electrolytes. In order to reduce the electrolyte decomposition the partial substitution of Mn with other transition state elements or with aluminium and magnesium was attempted.
The present work describes the doping of LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 with Al modelled in the framework of density functional theory, revealing the complex electronic structure of the material and the influence of the dopant atom on the stability of the electrode-electrolyte interface.
007JamierVincentSpainLEITATAluminum-ion batteries for stationary applications, the ALION projectAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyThe growth of energy needs and the depletion of the fossil resources demand the development of sustainable energy alternatives including both energy harvesting and storage. For the latter, new battery technologies are emerging in order to respond to this challenge and improve the performances of some applications where Li-ion batteries are limited. Thus, Post Li-ion batteries such as aluminum-ion batteries are receiving a great interest, in particular for stationary applications. Indeed, aluminum is providing a variety of beneficial attributes such as abundance (8 wt.% of earth crust), low cost, large scale manufacturing, processing and recycling as well as high theoretical capacity (2.98 Ah/g and 8.05 Ah/cm3) compared to lithium (3.86 Ah/g and 2.06 Ah/cm3).
ALION (“High specific energy aluminum-ion rechargeable decentralized electricity generation sources”) is a European project that aims for the development of Al-ion batteries, with a target specific energy of 400 Wh/kg. The project covers the whole value chain from materials and component manufacturers, battery assembler, until the technology validation in a real environment. The latter will be done in specific electric microgrid system including renewable energy source. Currently at mid-term of the project, new materials have been developed and optimized regarding anode, cathode, electrolyte and separator. At Leitat, new ionic liquid-based electrolytes and carbon nanotubes binder free cathodes are designed in order to improve the performance of the battery such as specific capacity and cyclability.
008PoriMajaLjubljanaNational Institute for ChemistryMethanol synthesis using CO2 as raw materialAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyEnvironmental and economic advantages arising from extensive recycle of CO2 and exploitation of fuels alternative to gasoline and gasoil brought in recent years a scientific focus onto the CO2-hydrogenation to CH3OH. The Cu/ZnO-based catalysts nowadays remain the most promising systems for CH3OH synthesis from CO2. In this work CO2 conversion into CH3OH is investigated over binary Cu/ZnO catalysts, prepared with a novel electroless plating method at low temperature of 250 ?. The prepared catalysts showed up to 38-fold higher activity for CH3OH formation compared to the commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 analogues. Determined superior activity of novel Cu/ZnO catalysts was disclosed in terms of defective Cu crystallites, rich in stacking faults and twin boundaries as active catalysts sites. According to the equation proposed by Warren[1], around 4 % of (111) planes in Cu crystallites were faulted in the prepared catalysts.. Furthermore, the synergy between Cu and ZnO in the prepared systems was confirmed in X-ray difractograms of used catalysts thought the CuZn alloy formation. The CuZn alloy was additionally confirmed with the EXAFS measurements at Cu-K and Zn-K edges. The obtained results revealed that approximately 15 % of ZnO is reduced into metallic Zn, which subsequently migrated and accumulated into the surface of Cu crystallites, forming the CuZn alloy.


Access to SR facilities of ELETTRA for Cu and Zn EXAFS measurements (beamline XAFS, project 20160239) is acknowledged.

References:
[1] Schumann J, Lunkenbein T, Tarasov A, Thomas N, Schlögl R, Behrens M. Synthesis and Characterisation of a Highly Active Cu/ZnO:Al Catalyst. ChemCatChem 2014;6:2889–97.
009SlavchevaEvelinaBulgariaInstitute of Electrochemistry and Energy System (IEES)-Bulgarian Academy of SciencesNatural non-carbon nanomaterial as catalytic support for hydrogen energy systemsAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyThe work presents a research on preparation of iridium supported on Montmorilonite(MMT) and investigation of its properties as anode catalysts for water electrolysis. MMT is a layered phyllosilicate clay mineral with 2:1 type sheet structure, high cation exchange capacity, high surface area and low cost. Chemically, it is a complex mixture of hydrated phyllosilicates, having rather complex general chemical formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2•nH2O. To our knowledge, MMT by now has not been investigated as catalytic support.
The metal is deposited by the well established sol gel technique. The catalytic loading is varied in the range 10-30 wt. %. The obtained MMT-supported catalysts (Ir/MMT) are characterized by EDX, SEM, DTG/TA and XRD techniques. Their electrochemical performance and OER catalytic efficiency are investigated by cyclic voltammetry and steady state polarization techniques in 0.5 M H2SO4 standard tree electrode electrochemical cell and in PEMWE cell at temperature interval of 20?C and 80?C.
The montmorillonite-supported iridium catalysts (Ir/MMT) shows superior performance in regard to both activity and stability compared to the previously studied iridium catalysts supported on commercial electrically conductive ceramic supports such as Magnelli phase titania (Ebonex, Atraverda and MPT, Ti-Dynamics).
010inancibrahimTurkeyondokuz mayis universityEffect of Matrix Type on the Mechanical Properties of Commingled Fiber based Thermoplastic CompositesAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyComposite materials are quite common nowadays and are used in nearly every segment of civilian and military industry due to the superb specifications possessed by these materials. Polymeric-matrix composites characterize with their light weight and high strength, for these reasons they are widely used in the aeronautics and defence industry. The aim of this project is to fabricate thermoplastic composite for the aeronautics industry, using commingled fibers (commingled of E glass fibers as reinforcement materials and thermoplastic fibers as matrix) which fabricated into composites using the hot press machine, then investigate the mechanical properties of the fabricated composites. Commingled fibers have the high potential for a homogeneous distribution of reinforcement material and matrix over the composite cross section. In this study, two types of commingled fibers will be used, the first one consists of E glass fibers and Polypropylene (PP) and the other one consists of E glass fibers and Low Melting Polyethylene Terephthalate (LPET). Both of them will be fabricated in the hot press machine using the same conditions of temperature and pressure. The final products will be tested using INSTRON 5982 100KN Tensile and Flexural Tests at Ondokuz May?s University (OMU) Central Laboratory (KITAM). At the end of this study, an appropriate type of polymer matrix will be determined for the composites referring to the mechanical test results. Hence, it is important to know that which type of matrix has great potential in the aeronautics industry.
011OcanaIbonSpainCEIT-ik4Microstructural and magnetic characterization of Fe-Si-B powders produced by gas atomisationAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyObjectives: During the last thirty years, Iron-silicon-boron alloys have been studied due to its excellent soft magnetic properties (high saturation magnetization, low coercivity, high permeability and low magnetostriction), of great interest for applications such as electric engines. These alloys develop such a good properties after rapid solidification and heat treating to achieve microstructures that are either amorphous or nano-crystallines. Obtaining the initial amorphous structure requires very high cooling rates during solidification. As a result, these alloys are typically produced by melt spinning.
Methodology: This research explores the possibility of producing Fe-Si-B alloys in powder form by gas atomization. One of the challenges is to study whether this technology is able or not to generate amorphous structures and, if so, under which conditions, since average cooling rates are orders of magnitude lower than in melt spinning.
Results: Fe-Si-B powders of different compositions have been produced by gas atomization. X-ray diffraction has been used to check if the alloys are crystalline or amorphous; in the former case, the constituent phases have been identified from the diffraction pattern. Scanning electron microscopy has been applied to study particle shape and microstructure. The full hysteresis cycle has been measured to obtain saturation magnetization, intrinsic coercivity and other magnetic properties.
Conclusions: For some compositions, fine particles (<10 microns) were fully amorphous and exhibited low coercivity. In this case, the crystallization kinetics was studied by differential scanning calorimetry.
012MancaOronzioItalyUniversità degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli"Numerical investigation on PCM in aluminum foam in latent thermal energy storagesAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyNowadays the energy thermal demand is very variable both in temporal term and in the methods of use. This variation makes difficult to match the energy demand with the energy supply, so it is important to improve the energy storage systems to avoid to waste the excess energy. There are many types of thermal storage system (TES) among which the Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems (LHTESS) with phase change material (PCM) that represent the best choice because they work at quasi-constant temperature. They have a wide application field, both to high-temperature or low-temperature applications especially for solar thermal energy storage. Nevertheless the main drawback is the low value of thermal conductivity of the PCM making the system useless for the thermal engineering applications. A way to resolve this problem is to combine the PCM with a highly conductive material like metal foam. In this paper a numerical investigation on the effects of the metal foam into the latent heat thermal energy storage system, based on a phase change material, is accomplished. The modelled TES is a typical 70 L water tank filled up with PCM and a certain number of pipes are located to transfer the thermal energy from the Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) to the PCM. The pure paraffin wax is assumed as PCM, it has a low value of thermal conductivity and it melts in a range of temperatures. The metal foam is made of aluminum with assigned values of porosity. The enthalpy-porosity theory is employed to simulate the phase change of the PCM and the metal foam is modelled as a porous media that follows the Darcy-Forchheimer law. Numerical simulations is carried out using the Ansys-Fluent code. The results are shown in term of melting time, temperature at varying of time and total amount of stored energy.
013Annemette HindhedeJensenDenmarkSiOx ApsSIOX COATINGS SUITABLE FOR SCALE REDUCTION IN HEAT EXCHANGERSAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyFouling of heat exchangers, e.g. in the chemical industry, district heating and power plants, results in a loss of performance, which leads to production stops for cleaning, and therefore increased operation costs. It has been estimated that more than 90% of all heat exchangers suffer from fouling with the economic result of an added cost of around 0.25% of the gross national product. One approach to mitigate fouling is to alter the properties of the metal surface. For a heat exchanger-coating to be successful, it needs to have a good adhesion to the metal while maintaining good heat transfer. This requires a thin coating with good thermal conductivity. In SiOx, a coating that meets these requirements has been developed and initial tests on plate heat exchangers have been performed in hard water. The ability of the coating to minimize calcium carbonate nucleation/deposition and the cleanability were assessed. The results showed that the coating led to a reduction in the amount of scaling and a lower adhesion of the crystals to the coated plate.
014BeckerJacobDenmarkAarhus UniversityContinuous Production of Tailored NanoparticlesAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyUsing solvothermal wet-chemistry to produce inorganic nanoparticles has been a standard batch method for years. More recently, adaptation to flow-technology has been shown to enable a continuous production while also granting strong "toolbox" for controlling and tuning particle properties such as size, shape, crystallinity, aggregation behavior, etc. Even at laboratory scale, reactors at Aarhus University is able to manufacture nanoparticles at a rate of >50 g/hour for many systems. The method can be applied to a wide range of energy materials including catalysts, ion-battery materials and semiconductors, e.g. thermoelectrics. It also enables production of composite materials, e.g. core-shell structures or substrate-bound catalysts. This poster outlines the technological principles and presents examples of the nanomaterials it provides access to. It also touches upon development of synthesis protocols by in situ ("live") crystallography. By way of conclusion, the AU research reactores are placed in the perspective of a pilot-scale reactor system currently under construction at the Danish Technological Institute.
015Saldivar TanakaLauraMexicoEl Colegio de MexicoThe precautionary principle in nanotechnology regulation in Mexico. Can we learn from the EU experience?Advanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyThis ongoing research aims at analyzing the process of nanotechnology regulation in Mexico by investigating the state of the art of this legislation, the stakeholders, whether risk and uncertainty aspects are taken into consideration, and if the precautionary approach is included, in order to understand which factors influence the inclusion of the precautionary principle in the nascent regulation. It includes recommendations for public policy implementation for a responsible development of this technology.
Information was gathered by applying different methods, among others literature review, interviews with main stakeholders, participatory research in relevant regulating bodies and other institutions. Finally, a comparative study of the Mexican regulation in relation to the main regulatory models, those of the European Union and of the United States of America was carried out.
The main outcomes show that Mexico is in the early stages of the regulatory process, so far having adopted only nine ISO TC-229-NT technical standards, none of which considers environmental aspects, and only one standard refers to occupational risk. Mexico is far from having specific regulations, such as those for cosmetics, food and chemicals regulations in Europe.
For the Mexican government to ensure a responsible development of NTs it is important that it gives more serious consideration to the social and environmental implications of the production and application of NTs and its nano-objects (NOAA), in addition to promoting the participation of social actors in the key political decision-making processes regarding these technologies, including their regulation.
016HajdukŠpelaSlovenijaNational Institute of ChemistryZnO nanostructured films using carbon nitride for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splittingAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyZnO nanostructured films using carbon nitride for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

Špela Hajduk1, Sean P. Berglund2, Matejka Podlogar3, Goran Draži?1, Fatwa F. Abdi2, Zorica C. Orel1, Menny Shalom4
1National Institute of Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana, Slovenia
2Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Solar Cells, Hahn Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin, Germany
3J. Stefan Institute, Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana, Slovenia
4Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Chemistry, Be'er Sheva, Izrael


Graphitic carbon nitride materials (g-CN) have emerged as an attractive metal-free photocatalyst and electrocatalyst for photo and electrochemical water splitting reaction, due to their environmental benignity nature and suitable band gap (2.7 eV for g-C3N4) that can be tuned to absorb larger portion of the visible light by changing the C/N ratio [1] . Many approaches were introduced to enhance the photoactivity and electronic properties of g-CN and resulted in significant changes in the electronic and catalytic properties [2], such as doping with different heteroatoms, or modifications with other molecules as monomers and by using highly ordered supramolecular assemblies as reactants. Recently, we showed the CM (cyanuric acid-melamine complex) can be used as a precursor for the solid-state deposition of g-CN on various substrates as FTO and porous TiO2 [3]. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of thin and homogenous g-CN layer on highly ordered ZnO nanowire (NW) substrate by growing a seeding layer of small supramolecular assemblies on the nanowires. The new synthetic approach leads to the formation of thin g-CN layer (~3 nm) without blocking all structure. The amount of loaded carbon nitride significantly influences the PEC activity of hybrid material and all the ZnO/g-CNx electrodes show great improvement in photoactivity. The chemical structure, morphology and optical properties of the deposited g-CN were fully characterized by various techniques as XRD, SEM, FIB-SEM, HR-TEM and XPS.

(1) An, T.; Tang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Quan, Y.; Gong, X.; Al-Enizi, A. M.; Elzatahry, A. A.; Zhang, L.; Zheng, G. Photoelectrochemical Conversion from Graphitic C 3 N 4 Quantum Dot Decorated Semiconductor Nanowires. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2016, 8, 12772–12779.
(2) Shalom, M.; Inal, S.; Fettkenhauer, C.; Neher, D.; Antonietti, M. Improving Carbon Nitride Photocatalysis by Supramolecular Preorganization of Monomers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 7118–7121.
(3) Xu, J.; Herraiz-Cardona, I.; Yang, X.; Gimenez, S.; Antonietti, M.; Shalom, M. The Complex Role of Carbon Nitride as a Sensitizer in Photoelectrochemical Cells. Adv. Opt. Mater. 2015, 3, 1052–1058.
017RinaldiAntonioItalyeneaAdvanced materials solutions for next generation high efficiency concentrated solar power (CSP) tower systemsAdvanced materials and nanotechnologies for low carbon green energyNEXTOWER proposes to investigate a set of innovative materials to boost the performance of atmospheric air-based concentrated solar power (CSP) systems and high-temperature thermal storage, with the goal of evaluating the market potential and proving industrial viability of the proposed solutions. In particular, tower systems are appealing for their great environmental compatibility and offer tremendous potential for efficient (electrical and thermal) power generation. Yet, their industrial exploitation has been so far hindered by limitations in the materials used for the central receiver - the core component - and for thermal storage. Such limitations in materials performance dictate in fact the maximum working temperature and the in-service overall durability, mainly driven by failure from thermal cycling and thermal shocks. Hence, improving the efficiency of a tower system entails necessarily improving the central receiver upstream and possibly re-engineering the whole systems downstream to work longer and at much higher temperature, especially in the thermal storage compartment.
Results will arise from a comprehensive conceptual and manufacturing approach that will optimize bulk and joining materials for durability at the component level to achieve 25 years of maintenance-free continued service of the receiver and maximum thermodynamic efficiency at the system level. This is made possible through a unique combination of excellence in materials design and manufacturing, CSP full-scale testing facilities brought together in the Consortium, supporting the making of a new full scale demo named SOLEAD. The successful achievement of a new generation of materials allowing increased working temperature and a new storage concept based on liquid metal shall help prompting the next-generation of CSP towers, capable of competing with other CSP alternatives and sustainable power supply options. The outcome of the project in terms of materials validation is broad and is expected to bring a cross-cutting impact in the energy sector beyond CSP, for example with respect to novel steels resistant to high temperature liquid metal corrosion of interest to GEN-IV nuclear fission
Acknowledgment: EU Commission, H2020 GA No 721045.
018CastilloSonjaThe NetherlandsIoniqa TechnologiesMagnetic nanoparticles for circular plastics recyclingAdvanced materials and nanotechnology for a bio-based and circular economySonja Castillo, Susanne van Berkum, Joost Wolters, Vincent Philippi, Tonnis Hooghoudt
Ioniqa Technologies, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Plastic problem
The ever growing use of plastics require innovations that drastically reduce the plastic waste streams and depletion of scarce oil resources. Conventional mechanical recycling cannot solve these problems, because it cannot remove colorants and other contaminants inside plastics, resulting in low-grade plastics.

Ioniqa’s solution
In contrast, we demonstrate a profitable process using specialized magnetic nanoparticles to chemically recycle polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics. In this process, PET waste can be depolymerized to virgin-quality raw materials, ready to be repolymerized into
high-grade PET products. Consequently, our process enables infinite PET recycling.

Magnetic nanoparticles
Functional magnetic nanoparticles are the essential component of this process. They act as catalyst for complete depolymerization under mild reaction conditions (< 200 ?C, ambient
pressure). Additionally, they contribute to the removal of contaminants in the PET feedstock and can be easily reclaimed and subsequently reused.

Upscaling innovation
We are currently testing at demonstrator level (80 kg PET/batch). The next step will be a continuous mode plant to process 10 kton PET/year. To meet the associated increased demand for magnetic nanoparticles, upscaling of nanoparticle production is being investigated within the CO-Pilot project. The aim of this H2020 project is to establish an open access infrastructure for the production of highquality nanoparticles and nanocomposites on a pilot scale.

Conclusion
Our catalytic magnetic nanoparticles employed in plastics recycling beautifully exemplify the application of nanoparticles to create an economically viable circular economy.

The authors acknowledge RVO Innovatiekrediet and H2020 CO-Pilot for financial support.
019MarquesPaulaPortugalUniversity of AveiroDESIGNING A CUSTOMIZED, LOW-COST AND ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFICIENT RECYCLING AND REUSE OF WATER RESOURCESAdvanced materials and nanotechnology for a bio-based and circular economyDESIGNING A CUSTOMIZED, LOW-COST AND ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFICIENT RECYCLING AND REUSE OF WATER RESOURCES
Paula A. A. P. Marques1, Gil Gonçalves1, Bruno Henriques2, Eduarda Pereira2

1TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2CESAM & Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal

Objectives:
This work aims to develop a technology for efficient heavy metal ion (HM) removal from different types of contaminated water under realistic conditions. Besides its high removal efficiency, its easy implementation, facile large-scale production, and ability to customized solutions able to respond to specific contamination issues is aimed.

Methodology:
We synthesized and functionalized graphene three-dimensional structures, with high surface area capable of adsorbing HM ions in aqueous solutions. The 3D-structures were shaped by self-assembling single graphene oxide sheets with control of surface chemistry by combining with other functional groups. These 3DGO structures were encapsulated in a permeable case.

Results:
The materials were characterized by SEM, XPS and BET. Adsorption studies conducted in HM (Hg, Pb, Cd and As) contaminated water reveal the enhanced ability of 3DGO for the adsorption metals, when compared to the traditional used activated-carbon. For example, a small dose of 3DGO (10 mg L?1) allows to remove up to 98% of Hg(II) after 2 hours of contact time, leading to a residual concentration in solution close to the guideline value for drinking water (1 g L?1). The ability of this material to HM was evaluated relatively to different experimental parameters such as pH, sorbent dose, time and effect on different competing metal ions.

Conclusions:
• The synthetic carbon nanostructures are easy to prepare
• High efficiency in heavy-metals removal from aqueous media when compared to activated-carbon under the same experimental conditions
• The encapsulation of these structures in permeable casings allows its easy recovery and able its implementation in areas without specific infrastructures.
The product is developed as a laboratory prototype and showed direct scalability (TRL3).
020Blanco-CoviánLucíaSpainITMA Materials TechnologyAntibiofouling coating using different methodologies based in silver nanoparticlesAdvanced materials and nanotechnology for a bio-based and circular economyObjectives
Biofouling is the accumulation of undesirable microorganisms, plants or algae on natural or artificial wetted surfaces. This is a main problem for many industries. It may cause a decrease in hydrodynamic efficiency, promote corrosion and clogging in pipes and valves.
We propose a new study focused on the surface modification of the substrate applying two methodologies using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as inhibitor against algae growth.
Methodology
Two different methodologies were compared as a proof of concept: i) In situ reaction of AgNPs on the surface, and ii) direct addition of AgNPs [1].
The former consists in the synthesis and growing of AgNPs by reaction of a silver salt on a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) coating at relative high temperature. The second method comprises the addition of citrate-stabilized monodispersed AgNPs in PVA. In both cases, the silver presence can be observed by visual inspection, due to the yellowish colour of the coating.
Results
The presence in the coatings of AgNPs obtained by both methods were checked using scanning electron microscopy. The antibiofouling effect of the different coatings were confirmed by contact with a culture of microalgae.
Conclusions
The resulting AgNPs coatings exhibited significant antibiofouling effect against microalgae, confirming their potential use.
References
[1] A. Nimrodh Ananth, S. Umapathy, J. Sophia, T. Mathavan, and D. Mangalaraj, ‘On the optical and thermal properties of in situ/ex situ reduced Ag NP’s/PVA composites and its role as a simple SPR-based protein sensor’, Appl. Nanosci., vol. 1. 87–96, 2011.
21BRENNERWernerAustriaTU WienThe Role of Early Involvement of Standardization in Implementation of a Circular Economy for Photovoltaic Waste - The Vision of the H2020 Project CABRISSAdvanced materials and nanotechnology for a bio-based and circular economyThe Role of Early Involvement of Standardization in Implementation of a Circular Economy for Photovoltaic Waste - The Vision of the H2020 Project CABRISS
Topic:Advanced materials and nanotechnology for a bio-based and circular economy
Abstract:Authors: Werner Brenner, Nadja Adamovic Institution: TU Wien, Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna, Austria werner.brenner@tuwien.ac.at Objectives: Growing photovoltaic (PV) panel waste causes a new environmental challenge, but on the other hand opportunities to create value and to open new economic paths. The main vision of the H2020 project CABRISS is implementation of a circular economy based on recycling, reused and recovered indium, silicon and silver materials for photovoltaic and other applications for the photovoltaic, but also for electronic and glass industry. Proactive involvement in European standardization guarantees compatibility with the EU’s WEEE directive. Methodology: The project consists in the development of: (i) recycling technologies to recover In, Ag and Si for the sustainable PV technology and other applications; (ii) a solar cell processing roadmap, which will use Si waste for the high throughput, cost-effective manufacturing of hybrid Si based solar cells and will demonstrate the possibility for the re-usability and recyclability at the end of life of key PV materials. Results: CABRISS cooperates with SEMI’s “TC Photovoltaics” and CENELEC’s CLC/TC 111X „Environment“ which deals with collection, logistics and treatment requirements for WEEE.- part 2-4: „Specific requirements for the treatment of photovoltaic panels“ and for WEEE 3-5: „Technical specification for de-pollution – photovoltaic panels“. Conclusion: CABRISS focuses on collection, de-pollution and treatment technologies for end-of-life PV as prerequisite for recovery and recycling. Acknowledgment: CABRISS has received funding from the EU's H2020 research and innovation program, GA 641972 http://www.spire2030.eu/cabriss
022KähkönenMikaFinlandUniversity of HelsinkiImpacts of nano-Dy, nano-Er and nano-Zn to capacity of basidiomycetous fungi to degrade harmful xenobiotic compoundsAdvanced materials and nanotechnology for a bio-based and circular economyImpacts of nano-Dy, nano-Er and nano-Zn to capacity of basidiomycetous fungi to degrade harmful xenobiotic compounds

Kinnunen A.1, Hatakka A. 1, Hilden K. 1 and Kähkönen M. A. 1, *

1 University of Helsinki, Department of Food and Environmental Sciences/ Microbiology and Biotechnology Division, Biocenter 1 (Viikinkaari 9), FIN-00140 Helsinki University, Finland. *mika.kahkonen@helsinki.fi

Objectives: We tested impacts of nano-Er, nano-Dy, nano-Zn, Er, Dy, Zn, Er salt, Dy salt and Zn salt to biodegradation of azo violet textile dye by six basidiomycetous fungi. Erbium (Er), dysprosium (Dy) and zinc (Zn) metals have used in new nanotechnology. In the final stage of nanoproducts’ life cycle nanomaterials can be distributed into the environment. Basidiomycetous fungi produce nonspecific extracellular oxidative enzymes, laccases and peroxidases. These depolymerize xenobiotic compounds and lignin. Nano-metals can decrease capacity of fungi to degrade xenobiotics.
Methodology: The basidiomycetous fungi, Phlebia radiata (FBCC 43), Pleurotus ostreatus (FBCC 517), Stropharia rugosoannulata (FBCC 474), Trametes pubescens (FBCC 735), Agrocybe praecox (FBCC 477) and Cerrena unicolor (FBCC 387), were cultivated in miniaturized test systems (1 ml) with nano-Er, nano-Dr and nano-Zn or as traditional or salt form (0-1000 mg/ l). Decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R dye was measured. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) pictures showed impacts of metals on the hyphal growth of fungus.
Results: S. rugosoannulata and A. praecox were significantly more sensitive to nano-Er and nano-Zn than to the traditional form of metals. Other four fungi were similarly sensitive to the nano-Er and nano-Zn than those with traditional form. All fungi were similarly sensitive to nano-Dr than those with traditional form. Sensitivity between fungi varied (EC50 = 10–564 mg Dy/ l, EC50 = 38–790 mg Er/ l, EC50 = 9–637 mg Zn/ l).
Conclusions: It wasn’t significant difference between nano- and bulk form in most cases.

Acknowledgment: Funded by Nessling Foundation
023GrochowskaKatarzynaPolandThe Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery Polish Academy of SciencesLaser-assisted fabrication of highly ordered titania nanotubes functionalized with gold nanoparticlesAdvanced materials and nanotechnology for a bio-based and circular economyDue to unique properties such as photoactivity in UV region, photostability, chemical inertness as well as high biocompability and non-toxicity combined with large active surface area, highly ordered titania nanotubes (TiO2NTs) attracted a lot of attention as they can be used as electrode material in e.g. photovoltaics, water splitting processes, drug delivery, biomedical sensing or labelling. In this work, we show TiO2NTs covered with Au nanoparticles (NPs) that exhibit improved sensing properties especially in terms of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). NTs were prepared in a standard anodization process of Ti foil in the presence of fluoride ions. Thin gold layers (up to 20 nm) were deposited onto TiO2NTs and subsequently thermally treated in pulse regime by means of UV (355 nm) laser irradiation. The energy fluence was kept between 60-180 mJ/cm2 and applied pulse number varied from 1 to 20. The SEM inspection revealed the formation of spherical NPs of broad size distribution (10-250 nm) with simultaneous preservation of TiO2 initial architecture proving that after proper selection of laser working parameters, laser beam do not cause the damage of titania layer. It has been found that for the TiO2NTs covered with laser-formed AuNPs the measured average SERS signal is markedly higher than the one observed for bare as well as for non-treated Au decorated TiO2NTs. The obtained results confirm that prepared material can be used as SERS substrate. This work received financial support from the Polish National Science Centre: Grant No. 2012/07/D/ST5/02269 and the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP).
024HalamaMarosSlovakiaTechnical University of KosiceRedox, thermodynamic and corrosion properties of nanoobjects in application environmentAdvanced materials and nanotechnology for a bio-based and circular economyStudy of redox properties, stability and life-time of metallic nanoobjects in application environment is complicated due to the lacks of techniques and the fact, that surface could be modified under different conditions. Relevance of information about corrosion behaviour and life-time of NPs after interaction with environment is of high importance, esp. in nanosafety. It is important to know thermodynamic characteristics before application of NPs for certain purposes. Key challenges of today are that available tools for the assessment of thermodynamic properties of engineered nanomaterials are often inappropriate or so laborious that adequate assessment of these properties remains highly problematic. This situation calls for rapid identification of priorities and development of screening techniques. Development of novel corrosion technique based on mobile electrochemical monitoring and quartz crystal microbalance should be tuned up in this stage by hyphenation with energy dispersive X-rays absorption spectroscopy. This coupling is interesting due to the possibility of performing in-situ experiments and detection of chemical changes running on the nanoobjects to determine“dose-response” relationships. The research is focused on assessment of redox properties of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles in simulated body conditions in the absence and presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and flavonoids. We have observed radical changes in thermodynamic behaviour of hybrid system Ag nanoclasters/ascorbic acid molecules realized by quantum-chemical calculations. Detail analysis of corrosion products after interaction with antioxidant molecules in environment could explain mechanism of dissolution of metallic nanoobjects and thus be most important information contributing on nanosafety open questions (unknown thermodynamic, redox etc.).
025BieniekTomaszPolandInstytut Technologii ElektronowejLab4MEMS-II project: Innovative multi-cantilever sensor system with MOEMS read-outElectromechanical and fluidic systems at nano-scaleCantilever-based sensor system are a well-established sensor family exploited in several every-day life applications as well as in high-end research areas. The very high sensitivity of such systems and the possibility to design and functionalize the cantilevers to create purpose built and highly selective sensors have increased the interest of the scientific community and the industry in further exploiting this promising sensors type. Optical deflection detection systems for cantilever sensors provide a reliable, flexible method for reading information from cantilevers with the highest sensitivity. However the need of using multi-cantilever arrays in several fields of application such as medicine, biology or safety related areas, make the optical method less suitable due to its structural complexity. Working in the frame of a the Eniac JU project Lab4MEMS-II our group proposes a novel and innovative approach to solve this issue, by integrating a Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-System (MOEMS) with dedicated optics, electronics and software with a MOEMS micro-mirror, ultimately developed in the frame of Lab4MEMS-II. In this way we are able to present a closely packed, lightweight solution combining the advantages of standard optical read-out systems with the possibility of scanning multiple read-outs from large cantilever arrays quasi simultaneously. In this presentation the general system overview will be presented along with representative measurement results from multi-cantilever arrays gathered for various resonant modes recorded for each cantilever.
Presented work has been performed under the Lab4MEMS-II project and has been financed by the ENIAC JU and NCBiR (621176-2) and by the statutory ITE project (1.02.078).
026GhatkesarMurali KrishnaNetherlandsDelft University of TechnologyWeighing, pipetting, and imaging liquids of femto-litre volumes using hollow microcantileversElectromechanical and fluidic systems at nano-scaleObjectives: Manipulating femto-litre volumes of liquid

Methodology: An atomic force microscope (AFM) hollow cantilever chip has been developed. It has similar dimensions as a conventional AFM chip but the cantilever and the tip are hollow. Fluid is loaded at the on-chip reservoir and dispensed through a nanometre scale aperture on the cantilever tip. A 3D printed plastic part was glued on the chip as a fluidic interface. A pressure control system with positive and negative pressure from ambient was built to control the fluid flow. The surface energy of the surfaces involved, surface tension of the liquid used and the amount of positive or negative pressure applied defines the dispensed or aspirated volume. However, the droplets would evaporate in less than a second due to small volumes involved. In order to keep the droplets without evaporating, an open chamber controlled climate was created around the sample surface.

Results: The multi-parameter results obtained like: weighing liquids in the pico-gram range, dosing femto-litre volumes and imaging the dispensed droplet volumes with the same device will be presented. The application of these devices to clamp graphene and local synthesize of nanoparticles will also be presented.

Conclusions:
A hollow AFM cantilever probe has been developed for manipulation of femto litre volumes of liquid.

Acknowledgements: This work is supported by NanoNextNL, a micro and nanotechnology consortium of the government of the Netherlands and 130 partners.
027ChoiSeong Soo????SunMoon University and Sungkyunkwan UniversityTowards the Plasmonic Nanopore for Portable Optical DeviceElectromechanical and fluidic systems at nano-scaleThe plasmonic optical nanopore fabrication for single molecule analysis will be presented. The plasmonic nanopore array can be fabricated using various electron beam irradiations. The fabricated plasmonic nanopore can offer analysis of the single molecule such as DNA, protein, and virus. This device can be utilized as the portable optical biosensor device.
028Cuesta-LopezSantiagoEspañaInt. research Center in CRMs and advanced industrial technologiesInnovative coarsening-resistant alloys with enhanced radiation tolerance and ultra-fine –grained structure for aerospace applicationMaterials modelling in an industrial contextICARUS proposes a new thermodynamic methodology able to identify the elements and the relative chemical composition allowing a nanocrystalline state to occupy a relative minimum of the Gibbs free energy, which makes the nanostructure reasonably stable against coarsening. This approach will be integrated, in synergy with multiscale and thermodynamic (Nano-Calphad) modeling, in order to implement a High-Throughput Screening (HTS) tool that will open a new horizon of discovery and exploration of multinary thermal stable nanocrystalline alloys, exhibiting superb tailored properties. ICARUS brings a radically new concept by addressing a still unsolved problem in the stabilization of nanocrystalline alloys. The materials discovery approach of ICARUS will be synergistic with the forefront industrial production technologies of nanomaterials and alloys. Results arising from ICARUS exploration will be materialized in specific demo compounds representative of carefully selected new alloys families that will change the present paradigm of EU aerospace industry. The most promising nanocrystallyne material identified will be synthesized by mechanical alloying and physical vapour deposition, and the obtained samples characterized toward the applicability in the aerospace sector. A proof of concept from its approach will be given and tested by experts and specialized industries working in the aerospace sector in close contact with NASA and ESA. In particular, ICARUS will demonstrate its potential by producing innovative coarsening-resistant nanocrystalline alloys with enhanced radiation tolerance (based on refractory metals), and light-weight high strength (based on Al, Mg, Ti) alloys.
Acknowledgment: EU Commission, H2020 GA No 713514.
029HavlovaVaclavaCzech RepublicÚJV ?ež, a.s.Development of tools for studying nanoparticle transport in fractured rock environmentMaterials modelling in an industrial contextThe basic goal of the project Development of tools for Studying Contaminant Transport in fractured rock environment (TH02030543; 2ConTra), funded by Czech Technology agency is to develop tools for evaluation of migration and retention of potential contaminants in the rock environment as the key input values the safety asessment of anthropogenic activities. Those may release contaminants (naoparticles, heavy metals, radionuclides) into the rock environment, hence groundwater. IIn order to evaluate their fate it is necessary to describe the processes which the species undergo on the path from the contaminant source to the environment, concerning that the main transport medium is groundwater in the rock environment and that one of the main routes of man exposure is drinking water.
The project aim is to build a laboratory physical models rock blocks) that include both artificial and natural fracture, to instrument them and to perform migration experiments that would study migration processes of the species in the rock environment, including dispersion, diffusion and sorption. The experiments will be modelled using both conventional softwares (MODFLOW, FEFLOW) and in-house code (FLOW123).
As the fate of nanoparticles in the environment are nowadays of high importance, those physical models will be presented as a potential tool for identification and description of processes that could influence their retention on the way toward the biosphere.
030BannierEmilieSpainAsociación de Investigación de las Industrías Cerámicas. ITC-AICE.Thermomechanical modeling of ceramic tile during cooling in the firing stageMaterials modelling in an industrial contextFiring is the key ceramic process stage in determining tile end appearance. It needs to be carried out in such a way as to produce tiles without any dimensional deformations (departure from rectangularity or flatness). Furthermore, part of the stresses generated during cooling can remain in the fired tiles, even for tiles that accomplish dimensional specifications. These stresses are referred to as residual stresses that can give rise to problems in tile installation or even in customer service phase.
The generation of stresses during tile cooling is a complex subject, owing to the various mechanisms involved. Temperature gradients are generated inside the tiles during cooling, there being a differential thermal expansion/shrinkage inside the tiles. Furthermore, at high temperatures, the pieces undergo creep strains; i.e. ceramics exhibit viscoelastic behaviour during firing.
This work describes a thermo-mechanical model to predict the tile behaviour during cooling. The first part of the calculation consists of solving a thermal problem to obtain the temperature distribution inside the tile. The second part of the calculation involves solving a mechanical problem. The temperature profile obtained in the first stage, combined with the thermal expansion diagram, the constitutive equations of the material, and the force equilibrium equations enable the calculation of stresses and displacements inside the tiles at any position in the kiln, as well as in the end product.
The model described in this work is a very valuable tool in identifying those cooling cycles that lead to a minimal presence of curvatures and residual stresses.

The results are part of DREAM project.This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 723641.
031AlfanyIzabelSpainLEITAT Technological CenterNano-confined photonic system for detection of breast cancer spread to the lymph nodesNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesOBJECTIVES. The Vision of HypoSens is to develop a widely accepted, minimally-invasive and crucial prognostic tool for breast cancer progression in early stages to help clinicians and specially oncologists to decide about prompt therapy approaches to patients and improve quality of life and expectancy. Our breakthrough research focus on the development, pre-clinical and clinical validation, and industrial demonstration of a unique all optical cancer prognostic system that will determine presence of cancer cells in the breast lymph nodes and characterize them, which correlates with presence of metastasis and bad prognosis.

METHODOLOGY. HypoSens prognostic system consists of a minimally-invasive Near-infrared imaging device able to register signals through scattering media enabled by the implementation of wavefront shaping, that processes data collected by injected tumour-targeted antibody functionalised nano-particles containing porphyrin sensors which will determine local oxygen concentration and local temperature distribution in the cancer cells.

RESULTS. The HypoSens imaging system is strategically designed to offer an alternative to the Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, the current surgical procedure for breast cancer staging. With an approximate cost of 60,000€ per device unit and additional 5,000€ per patient, the device is an affordable, accurate, easy to use prognostic solution for clinicians towards more accurate and fast diagnostics and personalised treatment options.

CONCLUSIONS. The initial target of the project is metastatic breast cancer, with potential later involvement in other cancer markets via the use of different tumor-targeting moiety. With an estimated 1.7M new cases each year, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Its low cost will enable a wide and fast take-up by clinicians and hospitals leading to an important reduction of the economic and societal burden related to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
032BohmerNilsSwitzerlandEmpa- Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and TechnologyInterferences of Nanoparticles: How to Implement Flow Cytometry as a Viable Tool for the Assessment of Nanoparticles in vitro in Early Product Development N Bohmer1, C Hirsch1, MJ Kwak2, MB Heo2, NW Song2, HF Krug1, P Wick1; 1 Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Testing and Research (Empa), CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland 2 Korean Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340, Rep. of KoreaNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesEngineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have a huge potential for industrial and healthcare applications. To take concerns about unexpected side effects in human or the environment into account, the requirements of reliable hazard assessment of ENMs are of high importance. One source of uncertainty is interference of ENMs with in vitro tests and strategies to prevent these phenomena are urgently needed as shown previously for MTS assay [1].
In this study ENM interferences are explored and assessed for flow cytometry-based assays. Therefore ENMs with distinct physico-chemical properties were investigated using the frequently applied Annexin V-PI-assay for the detection of apoptotic/ necrotic cells.
In dependence of the particle characteristics significant interferences were observed in a concentration range from 6.3 to 100 ?g NP/ml. These phenomena include fluorescence absorbance (gold), direct interaction with the dyes (silicon dioxide) and appearance of ENMs as events in the forward/side scatter (graphene oxide). Besides the particle properties also serum and particle concentration play an important role. By the combination of specifically designed controls (e.g. untreated cells spiked with NP without biological interaction) a strategy is presented to assess and circumvent these phenomena. Significance of key-findings is confirmed by experiments in two different laboratories.
The observed effects occur in a concentration range which is relevant in nanotoxicology as well as in nanomedicine. Overlooking of interferences could lead to misinterpretation of toxicity data. Hence, the results support a reliable hazard assessment in vitro of ENMs.

[1] Rösslein et al., Chem. Res. Toxicol., 2015, 28(1), pp 21–30
033BalasMihaelaRomaniaUniversity of BucharestInfluence of silica nanoparticles on human pulmonary cell metabolismNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesInfluence of silica nanoparticles on human pulmonary cell metabolism
Mihaela Balas1, Andreea Ruse1, Anca Dinischiotu1
1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 050095 Bucharest, Romania

Key words: human pulmonary fibroblasts, silica nanoparticles, oxidative stress, cellular metabolism

Objectives: Due to their specific surface characteristics, silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) are of great interest for biomedical applications and pharmaceutics even if their mechanism of action is not fully elucidated. In this context, our study was focused on the effects induced by SiO2 NPs exposure on cellular metabolism of human pulmonary fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells).
Methodology: MRC-5 cells were exposed for 24, 48 and 72 hours to 7 nm unmodified SiO2 NPs at a dose of 62.5 µg NPs per 3 × 10(4) cells. Unexposed cells were used as control. The intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were determined. In addition, the levels of glutathione reductase (GR) activity as well as nitrosylated and glutathionylated proteins were also evaluated.
Results: The exposure of pulmonary cells to SiO2 NPs induced a time-dependent decrease of MMP that was in accordance with the significant decrease of ATP intracellular levels up to 72 hours. GR activity increased significantly after 48 and 72 hours in order to restore the reduced glutathione (GSH), the most important cellular non-enzymatic antioxidant. Also, SiO2 NPs exposure generated significant increases of the levels of nitrosylated and glutathionylated proteins, in a time-dependent manner.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that SiO2 NPs have a toxic potential on human pulmonary cells that should be investigated in more details for their safe utilization.
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a grant of UEFISCDI, project NanoToxClass 13/2015, SIINN ERA-NET.
034SchmidRuthNorwaySINTEF Materials and ChemistryUltrasound-enhanced drug delivery using nanoparticle-stabilized microbubblesNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesR. Schmid & Y. Mørch, SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Dept. of Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, Research Group Polymer Particles and Surface Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway; S. Snipstad, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dept. of Physics, Trondheim, Norway

For many diseases, there is a high need for novel site focused treatments, as the most efficient drugs often lead to severe systemic toxicity or never reach the diseased tissue due to low transport through biological barriers. Focused ultrasound (US) applied at the disease site has proven promising as a non-invasive method to facilitate the transport of membrane impermeable compounds. Gas-filled microbubbles are known to greatly amplify the biophysical effects of ultrasound. However, as the effectiveness of microbubbles depends on several variables, it is essential to develop microbubbles that are tailored for therapy, instead of using commercially available contrast agent microbubbles. Currently, there are no such products on the market.
We have developed a technology platform consisting of microbubbles (MBs) stabilized by polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating multiple functionalities, including imaging and therapy, in a single system. We have recently shown that these MBs can act as contrast agents for conventional ultrasound imaging with comparable properties to commercial MBs. Then, by precise tuning of the applied ultrasound pulse, the MBs may oscillate and subsequently burst, opening biological barriers and releasing the NPs constituting the shell, resulting in increased local deposit of NPs into target tissue. In vivo efficacy studies in an orthotopic breast cancer mouse model show complete remission in all animals treated with our MBs (120 days) and low in vivo toxicity. The novel technology platform could hence be used to increase the delivery of the NPs to target cells while limiting the exposure to healthy tissue.
035NelsonAndrewUKUniversity of LeedsTOWARDS A THIRD GENERATION RAPID HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING PLATFORM FOR NANOMATERIALSNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesTOWARDS A THIRD GENERATION RAPID HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING PLATFORM FOR NANOMATERIALS
A. Nelson(1), P.Beales(1), N.William(1), N. Kapur(2), M. Kuznecovs(2), R. Drummond-Brydson(2) and F. Bamiduro(2). Schools of (1) Chemistry and (2) Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

OBJECTIVES:
1. Developing high throughput nanomaterial screening system within aim of H2020 HISENTS project.
2. Validating this system with standard toxicants.
3. Relating the size and shape of nanomaterials (NM) to their bioactivity
4. Configuring a sensor to measure DNA damage from genotoxicants.

METHODOLOGY: The screening device is composed of a flow cell with individual biomembrane-like sensor element on fabricated electrode interfaced to miniature
resevoirs by microfluidic flow networks. The endpoint is registered as damage to the continually replaceable sensor element and recorded electronically. The single modular system is being further miniaturised and extended to multimodular. In one development DNA-lipid conjugates as “recognition agents” are incorporated into the sensor layer.

RESULTS: The structure, workings and performance of the platform has been recorded against standard intercalibrant water soluble toxicants, where limits of detection (LoD) and response “fingerprints” are shown for each toxicant. The application of screening platform to Au, Ag, CeO2 NM is reported. In particular the relation between the extent of the electronic response and the size and shape of the NM particles will be shown and related to the mechanism of interaction of the particle with the biomembrane-like sensor element. The screening platform has been streamlined and automated. The incorporation of DNA-lipid conjugates
into the sensor element has been successfully achieved.

CONCLUSIONS:
1. Screening system measures biomembrane damage. The platform can “fingerprint” molecular interaction mechanism with biomembranes.
2. Particle interaction with sensor element is directly related to particle aspect ratio.
3. DNA damage from alkylating agent can be identified electronically.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The work was supported by the EU through HORIZON 2020 project name HISENTS GA No. 685817.
036CraciunAna-MariaRomaniaBabes-Bolyai UniversityNonbleaching gelatin-coated gold nanoparticles with two-photon excited FLIM/dark-field dual-modality imaging capabilityNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesPlasmonic nanoparticles, particularly gold (AuNPs), are constantly attracting attention for bio-imaging due to the appealing ability to generate their own optical signal under light excitation, - either by direct light scattering or intrinsic photoluminescence (PL), strongly correlated with their well-defined surface plasmon resonances. Nowadays, the non-linear optical effect of two-photon excited (TPE) fluorescence has recently grown in interest in recent years due to improved 3D spatial resolution owing to excitation with intense and extremely short laser pulses, as well as deep penetrability and less photodamage of living organisms due to excitation in near-infrared region. Despite the already demonstrated feasibility of using different types of AuNPs as contrast agents in TPE imaging assays, there is only one study reporting the combination of TPE with the powerful Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) technique. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the ability of different types of AuNPs (i.e. spheres, nanorods and triangles), enveloped in gelatin, to perform as contrast agent for the dual imaging of NIH:OVCAR-3 ovary cancer cells by TPE FLIM and dark-field microscopy. Combined imaging studies on individual cells show that AuNPs are well internalized inside cells and accumulate inside the cytoplasm. The spatial and temporal profile of the PL and scattering response inside cells are correlated with the size/shape of the AuNPs. Such innovative TPE FLIM – dark-field imaging assays could open new perspective in the development of dual-mode imaging methods, with possible applicability in real life. This work was supported by CNCSIS–UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-1991.
037TanasescuSperantaRomaniaInstitute of Physical Chemistry "Ilie Murgulescu" of the Romanian AcademyThermodynamic parameters controlling the interaction of nanoparticles with proteinsNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesIn the present work a focus will be given on the complex phenomena which occur at the interaction between nanoparticles (NPs) and proteins. Studying bio-nano interactions is important not only for the understanding the biology functions at the nanoscale which opens new opportunities in nanomedicine domain, but also to find key parameters for nanosafety research which is an emerging field investigated in parallel with development of novel applications.
In our study, the effect of three of the most commonly used metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), namely zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silica (SiO2) on the thermal stability of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine plasma fibrinogen (BPF type I-S) has been investigated. The following issues have been addressed:
- Assessing the effect of the NPs on the protein stability by measurements with NanoDSC T.A. Instruments equipment. The thermodynamic parameters represented by denaturation temperature, heat capacity; enthalpy, entropy and free energy changes have been evaluated.
- Analysis of binding characteristics for protein-NPs systems by using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry with Microcal iTC200 equipment. Measuring heat transfer during binding enables accurate determination of the binding constant, number of binding sites per biomolecule, enthalpy, Gibbs energy and entropy changes of binding interaction.
The calorimetric results generate additional information on the adsorption-induced changes in structural stability of the proteins.
Acknowledgements: The support of the EU (ERDF) and Romanian Government under the project INFRANANOCHEM Nr. 19/01.03.2009 and of the project NanoReg2, Nr. 646221/2015 in the Horizon 2020 Framework Program of the European Union is acknowledged.
038ULIERUDUMITRUROMANIASITEX 45 SRLGreat flexibility nanomanufacturing technology concept of new ocular implant with high biocompatibility degree and fast proliferation speedNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesD.Ulieru, A.Topor, X.Vila ,Oana-Maria Ulieru, ,
SITEX 45 SRL, R&D Department
114,Ghica Tei Blvd,Bl.40,Ap.2,Dept.2,Bucharest 023709,Romania
Abstract Development of a conceptually new implant for orbital prosthesis based on the innovative technology of peronalized implant based on nanomaterials applications.
Objectives The aims is to design a new type of orbital implant of nanocomposite material of hydroxyapatite and polyurethane, It obtained a composite scaffold with a higher rate of vascular proliferation within the implant that allows shortening the waiting time for final prosthesis and preserving integrity of the eyelid.
Methodology The influence of the composition and structure of the newly proposed composite material for orbital prosthesis on biocompatibility and growth of proliferation rate studied also. The Computer tomograf and CAD-CAM application developed as OEM technology to create the new customised implant.
Results Nanocomposite material based on polyurethane and hydroxyapatite with controlled structure and porosity synthesized by hydrothermal method, in a single step process, at high pressures (> 200 atm) and low temperatures (< 100 0C). It obtained strong interactions between two components of composite material. leading to a compositionally homogeneous and stable nanocomposite in the biological medium with best biocompatibility over surrounding tissues.. Resulted data essential for the future morphoclinical correlations focusing primarily on the synthesis of biomaterials with a high rate of proliferation and healing.
Conclusions The results are leading to a compositionally homogeneous and stable nanocomposite in the biological medium biocompatible with surrounding tissue and the first time when nanocomposite material is used for the fabrication of an orbital eye implant.
The financial support by UEFISCDI contract no.114/1.07.2014 under national R&D program PNIII (2015-2020).
039DolanskýJi?íPragueFaculty of Science, Charles University in PragueSulfonated Polystyrene Nanoparticles for Visible-Light-Driven Dual Antibacterial Action via Simultaneous Photogeneration of Nitric Oxide and Singlet OxygenNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesSulfonated Polystyrene Nanoparticles for Visible-Light-Driven Dual Antibacterial Action via Simultaneous Photogeneration of Nitric Oxide and Singlet Oxygen

Ji?í Dolanský,†‡ Petr Henke,† Pavel Kubát,$ and Ji?í Mosinger†‡

†Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, 2030 Hlavova, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic
‡Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, v.v.i., Czech Academy of Sciences, 250 68 ?ež, Czech Republic
$J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, v.v.i., Czech Academy of Sciences, Dolejškova 3, 182 23 Prague 8, Czech Republic

Objectives: Herein we report the preparation, characterization and antibacterial evaluation of photoactive sulfonated polystyrene nanoparticles, prepared from sulfonated nanofiber membranes, enriched by an encapsulated NO-photodonor and ionically entangled tetracationic porphyrin photosensitizer.
Methodology: Photoactive nanoparticles were analysed with SEM, DLS, emission and UV/vis spectroscopy, time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopy and NO amperometry. The antibacterial effect was tested on Escherichia coli.
Results: These photoactive nanoparticles exhibit an effective and simultaneous photogeneration of two antibacterial species, nitric oxide and singlet oxygen, under irradiation by visible light. In contrast to nanofiber membranes, which have limited photooxidation ability near the surface, nanoparticles are able to travel toward target species/structures. Their negatively charged surface (due to extensive sulfonation) prevents aggregation in aqueous environments and make the nanoparticles stable for long periods of time (months). Moreover, the pristine nanofiber membranes prepared by industrial electrospinning can be used not only as a source of nanoparticles but also as an efficient filter to remove bacteria and prepared nanoparticles. No living colonies of Escherichia coli were found after 10 min irradiation of bacterial suspension mixed with our photoactive nanoparticles.
Conclusion: The dual modal photobactericidal action observed on daylight illumination make the present engineered nanoparticles intriguing systems for any application where sterile environment have to be introduce and/or maintained.
040MasonLauraUKUpperton LtdSpray-drying of virosomes to produce stable powder vaccinesNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesObjectives
Developing thermostable solid form vaccines for non-invasive delivery represents a long-term solution to vaccination challenges. Producing a stable powder is challenging as drying liquids can stress and inactivate vaccine components. Virosomes are spherical, unilamellar lipid-based carriers around 100-200 nm in size, with intercalated functional glycoproteins to reflect the natural virus. When tagged with antigens and adjuvants, virosomes can act as vaccines, targeting viruses such as influenza and HIV. In this work, we investigate spray drying as a technique to produce solid form vaccines from influenza virosomes.

Methodology
Influenza virosomes were manufactured with intercalated HA (A/H1N1), a recombinant protein fragment (rgp41) and a synthetic lipopeptide (P1) derived from the HIV gp41 protein.
Trehalose was used to protect against virosome degradation. Spray dried powders were produced using a Buchi B-290 spray dryer, and the impact of feed rate, air pressure and outlet temperature investigated.

Results
Spray drying at an outlet temperature of 60 °C maintained the integrity of the virosomes, shown by particle size and SDS-page electrophoresis. Processing conditions were manipulated to produce a powder with an increased particle size (>8 micron), more suitable for nasal delivery. An enteric-coated oral capsule to deliver the formulation to the Peyer’s patch-rich ileac region of the small intestine, and a single dose nasal spray have been developed.

Conclusions
Virosomes were successfully spray dried into three formulations for oral and nasal delivery. Studies are currently being conducted to assess their long-term stability, and efficacy and safety is being evaluated in preclinical studies.

Project funded by MACIVIVA, a Horizon 2020 European Union funded project (grant no 646122). Mymetics SA is supported by the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI) of Switzerland.
041OliveiraHelenaPortugalUniversity of AveiroAn in vitro approach to assess the cyto-genotoxic potential of graphene nanomaterialsNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesDue to their unique properties, graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) have numerous fields of application as electronics, optics, biotechnology and medicine. The widespread applications of GFNs raise concerns about their impact on human health from occupational, consumer and environmental exposures. Inhalation exposure is particularly relevant for GFNs since some of these nanomaterials have aerodynamic diameters that enable deposition in the deep lung. Research towards the toxicity of GFNs is limited/controversial, and proper toxicological risk assessment is needed. Within the scope of the PLATOX project, funded by the FP7-SIINN ERA-NET on Nanosafety, commercially available GFNs were selected and their in vitro toxicity was assessed in human MRC-5 lung fibroblast cells and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages (0-50 µg/cm2). Cell viability was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and AlamarBlue® assays. Cellular uptake, effects on cell-cycle dynamics and inflammatory responses were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results show that viability of MRC-5 cells was not affected by any of the GFNs tested, contrarily to the cell viability of RAW 264.7 cells that decreased upon exposure to all GFNs. Both carboxyl graphene and single layer graphene markedly impaired metabolic activity of macrophages. Carboxyl graphene, graphene nanoplatelets and single layer graphene oxide were strongly internalized by RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, GFNs differently affected cell cycle dynamics of macrophages. Upregulation of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-? and MCP-1 was observed for single layer graphene oxide and graphene oxide. These findings highlight the importance of a comparative in vitro toxicity screening of GFNs with the ultimate goal of establishing a toxicological ranking.
042NicaCristina IonelaRomaniaUniversity of BucharestDevelopment and biocompatibility evaluation of photocatalytic graphene oxide/TiO2-based nanoparticles co-doped with iron and nitrogen designed for self-cleaning purposesNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesDevelopment and biocompatibility evaluation of photocatalytic graphene oxide/TiO2-based nanoparticles co-doped with iron and nitrogen designed for self-cleaning purposes

Cristina Ionela Nica1, Miruna-Silvia Stan1, Iuliana Dumitrescu2, Lucian Diamandescu3, Carmen Chifiriuc4, Anca Dinischiotu1

1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Romania
2 National R&D Institute for Textiles and Leather Bucharest (INCDTP), Bucharest, Romania
3 National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania
4 Research Institute of the University of Bucharest—ICUB, University of Bucharest, Romania

Objectives: Graphene is widely used in nanotechnologies to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2, but the development of such TiO2/graphene composites imposes the assessment of their risk to human and environmental health. Methodology: Therefore, graphene oxide decorated with two types of TiO2 particles co-doped with 1% iron and nitrogen were obtained by hydrothermal treatment, one of them being obtained by a simultaneous precipitation of Ti3+ and Fe3+ ions to achieve their uniform distribution, and the other one after a sequential precipitation of these 2 cations for a higher concentration of iron on the surface of Ti3+ oxohydroxide. More, their biocompatibility was assessed in vitro on human skin and lung fibroblasts.
Results: The exposure to 100 and 200 µg/ml of photocatalysts for 24 and 48 hours did not affect significantly the cell viability, which was at least 80% of control cells as established by Trypan Blue staining. In both cell lines, the analysis of oxidative stress showed an increased level of the advanced oxidation protein products and of the carbonyl groups for both types of photocatalysts only after 48 hours of incubation. More, an elevated lipid peroxidation was observed for the both samples after 48 hours indicating that different cytotoxic mechanisms targeting proteins and lipids were activated regardless the chemical structure of the particles.
Conclusions: Our findings are of major importance by providing useful knowledge for future photocatalytic self-cleaning and biomedical applications of graphene-based materials.
Acknowledgements: The authors thank UEFISCDI in the frame of PN II project No. 87/2014 (CLEANTEX).
043PukinaLasmaLatviaInstitute of Physics of University of LatviaNanoparticle transfer in ferrocolloids in nonuniform magnetic fieldNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesThis study was carried out with aim to observe and describe diffusion of nanoparticles in ferrofluids exposed to magnetic field. Knowledge gained in this study could be useful for magnetophoretic drug transport.
Experiments were carried out using ferrofluid with tetradecan as carrier fluid, that contains Fe2CoO4 particles, the mean magnetic diameter of which are 8 to10 nm. The ferrofluid was filled in thin cells with the form of rectangular parallelepiped. A non-uniform magnetic field (along the vertical axis) is created by permanent magnet underneath the cell, or by neodymium magnets of different shape (discs with different diameter (2 to 5 mm), blocks aligned in Halbach array) within the cell. The magnetic field created by the outside magnet is 0.5 T on the surface of the magnet and is considered to be uniform over the cell thickness as well as along its length. In the experimental configuration with external magnet discs of ferromagnetic material with different diameter (5mm and 6 mm) are put into the cell. The magnetophoretic transfer of nanoparticles in isothermal ferrocolloid in nonuniform magnetic field is investigated using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer reading the concentration profile by proceeding the time- the experimental data is collected as a video of changing interferogram [1]. The information about the concentration gradient change in time of the nanoparticles, that is caused by magnetic sedimentation, is extracted from video material digitally processing it.

The work was supported by: Latvian Research Program IMIS-2

References
[1] A. Mezulis, et.al. , Magnetohydrodynamics, Vol. 48, No. 2, 445-450, 2012
044PAPPAFOTINIGreeceAristotle University of Thessaloniki / BL NANOBIOMED P.CNanomechanical Characterization and Real Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry of PVA Nanocomposites FibersNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesNeurodegenerative diseases are considered to be a significant challenge of 21st century, due to the difficulty of the nervous system to be restored after severe damage. The application of Nanomedicine as a valuable tool for the detection and treatment of Neurodegenerative diseases used in order to improve functional neuroprotective agents and enhance the restoration of affected neural tissues. In this study we proceed towards the fabrication of a Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) /PEDOT: PSS non-woven scaffold by Electrospinning process and explored its application as nerve guide substrate and regenerative agent in vitro. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity, thickness and chemical composition were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), SE Ellipsometry and Contact Angle measurement (CA) respectively. SEM micrographs revealed the fibrous matrices and the physicochemical behaviour of these structures was divulged via contact angle measurements after proper chemical cross-linking. Neural cell line was cultivated onto the engineered matrices and in vitro studies indicated that electrospun PVA/PEDOT: PSS nano-fibrous scaffolds promoted neural cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. Depth-sensing dynamic nanoindentation (DNI) with a Berkovich-type indenter was used to study the nanomechanical response of the fibrous scaffolds. The load-displacement DNI curves were analysed to estimate the elastic modulus (0.6 ± 0.08 GPa) and the hardness (0.02 ± 0.001) versus the nanoindenter displacement into the fibrous scaffold as well as to study its time-depended mechanical properties. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it is believed that this electrospun nerve fiber-based scaffold could find further application in cell therapy for nerve regeneration in future, in order to improve functional regeneration outcome, especially for longer nerve defect restoration.
045MischenkoOlegPolandOsteoplant Research and DevelopmentSurface nanotexturing by Laser-Induced Periodic surface Structures for dental implantsNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesSurface nanotexturing by Laser-Induced Periodic surface Structures for dental implants

Oleg Mischenko1,2, Maksym Pogorielov3
1Osteoplant Research and Development, Debica, Poland
2Zaporozhye State Medical University, Zaporozhye, Ukraine
3Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine

Excellent mechanical properties, chemical resistance and biocompatibility allow the wide use of Ti and Zr making those metals suitable for applications in orthopedics and dental surgery. However, around 7 % of dental implants are lost during the 10 years after surgery. Surface topography and wettability are key parameters in determining implant/tissue interaction and osteointegration.
The aim of current research was in-vitro evaluation of new laser nanostructured surface for dental implants.
Commercial (Ti6Al4V) alloy and zirconium rods of 10 mm diameter were used in experiment. Laser-Induced Periodic surface Structures (LIPSS) were imprinted on polished Ti6Al4V and Zr samples using a Light Conversion “Pharos” femtosecond Yb-doped solid state laser system. The surface morphology was acquired by AFM, chemical composition – by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). HDFa (Human Dermal Fibroblasts-Adult) cells were used to assess biocompatibility.
AFM shown that nanostructures were successfully obtained on all the treated area and their appear homogeneously distributed and regular, no bifurcation are present on both pure Zr and Ti alloy.XPS does not show substantial differences in chemical composition between untreated and treated surfaces. Results demonstrate higher ratio of cells growth on laser-nanostructured surfaces compared to untreated ones. Those results coupled with no dependence of cell proliferation on type of metal (Ti alloy or Zr) and strong dependence of cell proliferation on topography of surface roughness suggests a predominant influence of surface topology on those biological processes.
Our results open a great prospect for application of HR-LIPSS in modification and improvement of surface of dental and surgical implants.
046BoudouCarolineFranceInstitut Laue LangevinNeutrons: the unique probe for studying nano-compounds in physiological environmentNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesWhen it comes to the investigation of properties of nanocarriers (such as liposomes, lipid nanoparticles) or proteins and their interactions with targets, membranes and the surrounding medium, neutron techniques appear to be an essential tool as neutrons probe the right length scales, they are non-destructive and allow measurements in physiological environment. Through neutrons, a sharp contrast can be obtained from the hydrogen atom and its stable isotope deuterium. The isolation of molecules from solvent, or the core or the shell of these molecules is made possible, leading to a clear investigation on processes.

We will focus on examples related to stability of liposomes [Gerelli 2008-2010], solubility of cholesterol in liposomes [Garg et al 2014] and smart nanogels [Zielinska et al. 2016]. These topics have been investigated through:
- small angle neutron scattering, a technique that probes structures from 1 nm to about 1 µm;
- neutron reflectivity, a technique suited to the study of layers ranging from 1 nm to about 600 nm.
047ConstantinescuCristina AnaRomaniaInstitute of Cellular Biology and Pathology "N. Simionescu"Selective siRNA delivery to endothelial cells using P-selectin directed lipoplexesNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesSelective siRNA delivery to endothelial cells using P-selectin directed lipoplexes

Cristina Ana Constantinescu1,2, Daniela Rebleanu1, Mariana Deleanu1,3, Geanina Voicu, Monica Tucureanu1, Elena Butoi1, Ileana Manduteanu1, Virginie Escriou4,5,6,7, Manuela Calin1

1Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology "Nicolae Simionescu”, Bucharest, Romania, 2UASVM, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest, Romania, 3UASVM, Faculty of Biotechnologies, Bucharest, Romania, 4CNRS, Unité de Technologies Chimiques et Biologiques pour la Santé (UTCBS) UMR 8258, Paris, France, 5INSERM, UTCBS U 1022, Paris, France, 6Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne-Paris-Cité University, UTCBS, Paris, France, 7Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, UTCBS, Paris, France

Objective: P-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule specifically expressed by activated endothelial cells (EC). In this study, we developed P-selectin targeted cationic liposomes to function as efficient vectors for siRNA delivery to EC.
Methodology: Targeted cationic liposomes containing the cationic lipid 2-{3-[Bis-(3-amino-propyl)-amino]-propylamino}-N-ditetradecyl carbamoyl methyl-acetamide (DMAPAP) combined with 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero- 3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) (1:1 molar ratio) were obtained by coupling a peptide with high affinity for P-selectin to a functionalized PEGylated phospholipid inserted in the liposomes’ bilayer (P-sel_Lipo). The lipoplexes obtained after complexation of cationic liposomes with siRNA were characterized for size (dynamic light scattering) and the amount of peptide coupled to the surface (HPLC). The binding and internalization of fluorescently labeled P-sel_Lipo/siRNA lipoplexes were investigated in time, in static and dynamic conditions, using bEnd.3 cells (that constitutively express P-selectin) by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. As control, scrambled peptide coupled cationic liposomes complexed with siRNA (Scram_Lipo/siRNA) were used. Results: 1) The size of lipoplexes was around 300 nm; 2) under dynamic conditions, the binding of P-sel_Lipo/siRNA to EC was higher in comparison to Scram_Lipo/siRNA, suggesting a specific adhesion; 3) at 10 minutes of incubation in static conditions, the internalization of P-sel_Lipo/siRNA was significantly higher as compared with Scram_Lipo/siRNA, but higher periods of incubation resulted in non-specifically increased internalization of both types of lipoplexes; 4) P-selectin targeted lipoplexes deliver intracellularly siRNA with higher efficiency as compared with commercial transfection vectors.
Conclusions: P-selectin-targeted lipoplexes bind specifically and efficiently deliver siRNA to P-selectin expressing endothelial cells.
Acknowledgments: The work was supported by UEFISCDI, PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-1837 project.
048Kazemi OskueeRezaIranMashhad University of Medical SciencesCytotoxicity and transfection efficiency of dexamethasone conjugated poly(propyleneimine) nanocarriers for gene deliveryNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesRegarding the immunogenicity issues of viral vectors, various nonviral vectors have been developed to achieve more potent and less toxic gene carriers. Polypropylenimine (PPI), a cationic dendrimer with defined structure and positive surface charge, is a potent nonviral vector. Dexamethasone (Dexa) conveys to the nucleus through interaction with its intracellular receptor. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop efficient and nontoxic gene carriers through conjugation of Dexa with various percentages (5%, 10%, and 20%) to fourth and fifth generation PPIs (PPIG4s and PPIG5s). Dexa was chemically conjugated to PPIs using Traut's reagent. After dialysis and lyophilization, the physicochemical characteristics of products (PPI-Dexa) including zeta potential, size, buffering capacity, and DNA condensing capability was investigated. Moreover, cytotoxicity and transfection activity of the Dexa-modified PPIs were assessed using Neuro2A cells. The Dexa modification of PPIG4s resulted in better cytotoxicity profile compared with unmodified PPIG4s. Among PPIG5s, the best transfection efficiency was observed in 10% Dexa-grafting (PPIG5-Dexa 10%), while its cytotoxicity was comparable to PPIG5s. In conclusion, the modification of PPIs with Dexa is a promising approach to improve their cytotoxicity and transfection. The higher optimization of physicochemical characteristics, the better cell transfection and toxicity will be achieved.
049BorgosSven EvenNorgeSINTEF Materials and ChemistryAnalytical strategies for advanced characterisation of nanomedicinesNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesNanomedicine holds the potential to improve clinical diagnostics and therapy in numerous, sometimes dramatic, ways, for the immediate benefit of personal and public health. This great promise is tightly connected to the unique physical, chemical and biological interactions taking place with entities and surface features that are on the nm scale.

The size scale that gives nanomedicines their unique characteristics also imply their own particular analytical characterisation challenges. SINTEF is one of Scandinavia's largest CROs, is non-profit, and has built a unique infrastructure and competence for physicochemical and biological characterisation of nanomedicines, and other biologically interacting nanomaterials. SINTEF, Dept. of Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, is a core partner for nanomedicines characterisation in several ongoing EU-projects, including NAREB (FP7, nanomedicines for difficult infectious diseases), EU-NCL (H2020, infrastructure project offering free characterisation services to European nanomedicines developers) and B-SMART (H2020, nanomedicines for RNA-based drug delivery to the brain). We also manufacture polymer- (PACA) and lipid-based nanomedicines for targeted drug delivery. We continuously seek collaborations and research projects to help fulfil our vision 'Technology for a better society'.

Here, we will present the infrastructure capacity for nanomedicine characterisation at SINTEF, Dept. of Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, and examples of use in past and current projects. Core technologies include field flow fractionation, a wide range of mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques, including MALDI-FT-ICR MS imaging, as well as robotic high-throughput cell assays for cytotoxicity and other cellular parameters.
050DemircanÖzgürTurkeyOndokuz May?s UniversityImproving Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Polyurethane by Reinforcing with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)Nano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesEpoxy resins have been widely used for coatings, electronic materials, adhesives, and matrices for fiber-reinforced composites because of their outstanding
mechanical properties. When we use epoxy resin for fiber-reinforced composites in the primary and secondary structural parts of aerospaces, epoxy resin should
have high mechanical properties. CNTs exhibit an exceptionally high stiffness and strength. The combination of the material properties makes CNTs highly
desirable candidates to improve the properties of polymers.
Fabricating of the MWCNTs Non-reinforced epoxy resin: By using the ratio of 36 (hardener) / 100 (resin), 216 g hardener and 600 g epoxy resin were mixed and
poured into 300x400 mm2 glass mold. Then they were kept at room temperature for 24h for drying. After drying step, the epoxy resin removed from the mold and sample was put into the oven and were kept at 80°C temperature for 24h and cured to increase in the number of crosslinking.
Fabricating of the MWCNTs-Reinforced epoxy nanocomposite: The solvent was prepared by mixing of 2.5 ml Aceton and 1.4 gr MWCNTs powder and then it was
mixed by 20 gr Epoxy resin and hardener. Then, the same fabrication method of MWCNTs Non-reinforced epoxy resin was used for the MWCNTs reinforced epoxy nanocomposites.
The MWCNTs-Reinforced epoxy nanocomposites showed higher elasticity modulus (2.12 GPa) and tensile strength (59.1 MPa) than the MWCNTs Non-reinforced
epoxy polymers (1.39 GPa and 40.8 MPa respectively). Hence, the addition of the MWCNTs in epoxy resin has a great potential in the aeronautics industries than
conventional composite materials.
051PokornyMarekCzech RepublicContipro a.s.Thickness uniformity of polymeric nanofibrous layers deposited by electrodynamic spinningNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesThe main objective of our multiannual research is to improve the quality of large polymeric nanofibrous layers used in many applications in modern medicine. The thickness uniformity of layers is a critical quality parameter, i.e. the most important factor affecting the material properties and its behavior. Local variations in the thickness of the layers are unacceptable for many applications. With the gradual introduction of such materials on the market, solving the homogeneity is a hot topic for many research institutions and manufacturing companies, which expect return on their investment.
Initial hypothesis of the work was to use dynamic technological procedures to eliminate irregularities of the electrostatic field. Layers inhomogeneities mostly occur when the static geometry of the spinnerets and flat plate collectors are used. Therefore, we propose a new system of movable electrodes utilizing high productivity nozzles and rapidly unwound substrates in the form of an endless belt. Moreover, new approaches to accurately assess the uniformity of the thickness by image analysis based on transmitted light detection are presented.
This work shows approach for production of high-quality and large enough nanofibrous layers. Using the described procedure an increase in the thickness uniformity of nanofibrous layers by 30 % was achieved, compared to the static electro spinning method implemented in the most recent technologies and devices. High-quality layers were prepared on a surface area (100 x 25) cm2. Such technological methods are suitable to prepare materials being developed for application in medicine.
052BENEALIDIARomaniaFaculty of Engineering, Dunarea de Jos University of GalatiHybrid polymeric chitosan - nanoporous TiO2 layer formed on Ti alloy to improve the surface properties in biological solutionsNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesHybrid polymeric chitosan - nanoporous TiO2 layer formed on Ti alloy to improve the surface properties in biological solutions
Topic:Nano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologies
Abstract:Uniform nanostructured bionanocomposite layer composed of chitosan (CS) and porous TiO2 on titanium alloy like Ti-6Al-4V, was obtained by two electrochemical methods. Hard anodic and controlled oxidation was applied to obtain an uniform and porous titanium oxide on titanium alloy. Final bionanocomposite layer was electro-synthesized successfully by electrodeposition of chitosan on top and into nanoporous oxide layer. Surface morphology, compositional properties and diffraction patterns of bionanocomposite were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influence of anodic nanoporous TiO2 film and bionanocomposite hybrid layer (chitosan film on porous TiO2 layer) on in vitro electrochemical behaviour of titanium alloy support in biological solution was investigated. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to examine the in-vitro electrochemical behaviour in physiological solution. The combination of the high biocompatibility of chitosan and good mechanical characteristics of porous film on titanium alloy make the obtained bionanocomposite layer a promising candidate for medical implant applications.
053MarculescuCatalinRomaniaNational Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies - IMT BucharestFlow analysis in microfluidic device for erythrocyte lysis – numerical investigationNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesCatalin Marculescu*1, Vasilica Tucureanu1,2, Andrei Marius Avram1, Tiberiu Burinaru1,3, Bianca Tincu1, Marioara Avram1

1National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, Romania
2Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania
3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, USAMVB, Romania
*Corresponding author: e-mail: catalin.marculescu@imt.ro


In modern diagnostics, determining CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes number from the whole blood sample represents an important achievement in diagnosing and monitoring lymphoid malign diseases, and not only: Behçet syndrome, myasthenia gravis, mononucleosis, AIDS, etc. We are developing a lab-on-chip for CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes isolation and counting. Working with whole blood samples requires a procedure with specific steps to achieve lymphocytes isolation: i) leukocyte isolation that requires contaminating erythrocytes removal – lysis – with 0.12% formic acid and 0.05% saponin aqueous solution, ii) lysis ceasing with sodium carbonate and PBS solution, iii) T lymphocytes isolation in a capturing chamber and iv) and T lymphocytes counting with inter-digitized nano-electrodes. The present microfluidic study is emphasizing the flow behaviour of the whole blood mixture with lysis solution (1:12 ratio) in the microfluidic segment for erythrocyte lysis. We report here a numerical investigation on the flow dynamics within a series of twenty winding 200 x 50 µm microchannels presenting two inlets and one outlet. For the fluid representing the blood, an approximation was necessary in our prediction: Carreau-Yasuda model. The flow analysis includes pressure and velocity distributions, cell and nanoparticle stagnation time, diffusion representation etc. To avoid leukocyte lysis the stagnation time in the microchannels must not exceed 3 seconds. Therefore, the flow rates used for our case must be 5 µl/min for the whole blood and 60 µl/min for the lysis solution, respectively.
054CatalucciDanieleItalyNational Research CouncilCardio Ultraefficient nanoParticles for Inhalation of Drug prOducts - CUPIDO -Nano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesOBJECTIVES
The EU-funded project CUPIDO, started in February 2017, propose to apply nanotechnologies to the cardiovascular field. CUPIDO aims to hit the core of the cardiovascular disease, developing inhalable nanoparticles that can deliver as simple as breathing a therapeutic directly to the diseased heart.

METHODOLOGY
To achieve the goal, the CUPIDO consortium is working to develop biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles that can self-assemble and encapsulate drugs, novel or available, in a suitable format for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

APPLICATIONS
CUPIDO will address cardiovascular diseases associated with structural and functional impairment of the myocardium presenting a reduced systolic function (i.e. Heart Failure with reduced Ejection Fraction- HFrEF). Treatments will first be evaluated in a mouse model of HFrEF and the most effective formulation for therapeutic delivery will be then applied to an HFrEF model in mini-pigs. The project will prepare the way for future clinical trials by proofing the preclinical feasibility of the nanotherapy.

THE CONSORTIUM
The EU-based consortium, composed of 6 academic research groups, 5 SMEs, 2 industries, and 1 pharmaceutical company, gathers a vast array of expertise and joins cutting-edge research with pre-clinical experience and industrial manufacturing.
055ApetreiConstantinRomaniaDunarea de Jos University of GalatiNanostructured biosensor based on L-amino acid oxidase immobilized onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Prussian Blue hybrid film with applications in pharmaceuticsNano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologiesL-Amino acids are widely found in nature and are essential compounds for life. Therefore, determinations of L-amino acids are important from clinical and pharmaceutical purposes.
In this study, a highly sensitive screen-printed amperometric biosensor for the detection and quantification of L-amino acids was developed. The sensitive element is based on covalent immobilizated L-amino acid oxidase onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes / Prussian Blue hybrid film. L-amino acid oxidase enzyme immobilization was carried out by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde.
The molecular architecture and interactions among components of sensitive layer was determined using UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometric techniques. The morphology was characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopes.
Detection technique was fixed potential amperometry using a drop of sample. The optimizations of supporting electrolyte properties and of detection technique parameters were carried out.
The biosensor showed optimum response when +0.16 V was applied in phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.5. A linear proportionality between biosensor current and L-phenylalanine concentration ranging from 0.05 ?M to 100 mM with a detection limit of 2.3×10-8 M (S/N=3) was achieved. The interferences and matrix effect were studied by standard addition method obtaining an excellent average recovery of 100.4%. Outstanding enantioselectivity towards L-amino acids was noticed. The validation of the biosensor was carried out by quantification of L-amino acids in pharmaceuticals and the values compared with label values.
Acknowledgment
This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-1093.
056FarcalLucianRomaniaBIOTOX SRLAn integrated testing approach to generate validated, lung-relevant toxicity data on graphene nanoplatelets Nano-enabled healthcare nano-medicine and medical technologies Graphene nanoplatelets (GFNs) represent a group of carbon-based engineered nanomaterials with special properties, which enable innovation in technology and medicine. Within the general framework of safety assessment of nanomaterials during their lifecycle, the main objective of the PLATOX project (funded by EU FP7-SIINN ERA-NET Programme) is to apply a tiered approach to assess the toxicity of GFNs and finally identify the derived no-effect level (DNEL) parameter for inhalation exposure.
A comprehensive physicochemical characterization of six commercially available GFNs (single- and multilayer graphene/graphene oxide, carboxyl graphene, and graphite oxide) was followed by an in vitro toxicity screening using different endpoints and lung-relevant cell models (primary rat alveolar macrophages, murine macrophages and primary human lung fibroblasts). In vitro testing comprised evaluation of the cytotoxic (membrane damage, metabolic activity and cell proliferation), genotoxic (oxidative comet assay and cell cycle dynamics) and pro-inflammatory potentials (cytokine/eicosanoid release).
Cytotoxicity results were used to calculate the benchmark dose (BMD30), a parameter subsequently used as starting concentration for the other endpoints. Generally, the in vitro results showed a higher sensitivity of the macrophage models, compared to fibroblasts, and a higher toxicity of single layer graphenes, as compared to the other GFNs. The high toxicity was correlated with a higher surface area of the single layer graphenes.
These results allowed us to establish a toxicity ranking and to select two GFNs with low and high toxicity to be tested in a 28-day inhalation toxicity study in rats. All results will be further integrated in the overall risk assessment workflow.
057ULBIKASJURASLITHUANIAApplied Research Institute for Prospective TechnologiesMORPHOLOGY AND STRUCTURE OF TiO2 NANOPARTICLES GENERATED BY ABLATION OF TITANIUM PLATE WITH FEMTOSECOND LASERNano-manufacturing and nano-metrology, Technology and business networks in Europe – promoting innovation and industrial venturesJuras Ulbikas1, Matas Rudzikas1 Jolanta Don?lien?2, Algirdas Galdikas2, Steffi Rades3, Ilona Dörfel3, Burkhard Peplinski3, Mario Sahre3, Vasile-Dan Hodoroaba3, Valter Maurino4
1Applied Research Institute for Prospective Technologies, Lithuania, 2Modernios E-Technologijos Ltd, Lithuania, 3Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Germany, 4University of Torino, Italy
e-mail: ulbikas@protechnology.lt

Femtosecond laser ablation of titanium plate immersed into distilled water has been applied for generation of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Laser wavelength, intensity, pulse repetition rate, scanning rate and ablation duration have been varied to optimize TiO2 generation procedure.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission SEM (TSEM) and high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM) have been used to assess surface morphology and size of the titania particles. Structural information such as degree of crystallinity and phases of titanium oxide have been extracted from HR-TEM combined with Fast Fourier Transform analysis performed on individual particles. In order to complement structural information at the macroscopic level, XRD has been applied to the dried TiO2 suspension prepared on defined substrates. Solution concentration was measured via Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS).

SEM and TSEM images displayed spherical shape of TiO2 NPs with diameters below 50 nm for the majority of NPs. A crystalline fraction, which is mainly a mix of polymorphs of TiO2, and amorphous phase have been identified in dependence on the NP generation conditions. Longer ablation duration as well as irradiation of nanoparticle containing suspension with laser beam (secondary stage of ablation without titanium plate) leads to tendentially smaller diameter of nanoparticles, what is assumed to be caused by laser interaction with already generated particles. Concentration of NPs increases linearly from 100mg/L for 10 min to 1g/L for 90 min of ablation duration. Obtained results considerably extend knowledge about inner structure of TiO2 NPs generated by pulsed femtosecond laser ablation procedure in liquid.
058OcanaIbonSpainCEIT-ik4Nanopatterning of diamond based on ultrafast UV laser induced photo-oxidationNano-manufacturing and nano-metrology, Technology and business networks in Europe – promoting innovation and industrial venturesObjectives: Atomic-scale manipulation of carbon based surfaces, such as diamond, has an enormous potential for the construction of future nano-scale, photonic and optoelectronic devices. Diamond, when compared to other group IV covalent semiconductors such as silicon, is particularly interesting because it offers advantages in terms of heat conductivity, hardness and transparency for multitude of applications. The development of diamond transistors, single photon sources for quantum computation based on diamond or high power diamond optics and lasers benefits from developments on high precision diamond processing greatly.

Methodology: Ultrafast UV laser light provides a novel method for processing diamond surfaces with nanometer accuracy. Among its properties, the fact that the process is graphite-free and produced by non-linear optical interaction, enables high-speed nano-machining without the need of complex chemical processes while the spatial resolution can potentially go beyond the diffraction limit. This process, laser induced desorption (LID), differs from laser ablation by lower incident fluence or intensity on the sample, and by removing material by bond breaking and ejection of surface species via excited quanta instead of thermo-mechanical or electrostatic forces.

Results: In this poster, we will show progress on the fabrication of complex structures in diamond surfaces with high accuracy (sub-10 nm) utilizing shaped femtosecond UV excitation as well as nanostructures with aspect ratios close to 1:1, high fidelity and roughness well below 1.5 nm.

Conclusions: This novel process shows great potential for the rapid fabrication of complex 3D photonic devices based on diamond with nanometer resolution.
059UllmannChristianGermanyDresden University of TechnologyEvaluation of particle sizing with analytical centrifugation methodsNano-manufacturing and nano-metrology, Technology and business networks in Europe – promoting innovation and industrial venturesThis study evaluates the performance for the grouping of particulate substances according to the European Commission’s recommendation on the definition of a nanomaterial, which is based on the number-weighted median size. The repeatability of the measurement and the method precision including sample preparation, measurement and conversion into number-weighted particle size distributions were compared.
Four instrument of analytical centrifugation technologies with turbidity detectors are used: Cuvette centrifuges LUMiSizer610 (detection at 470nm), LUMiSizer651 (865nm), disc centrifuge DC24000UHR (405nm) and analytical ultracentrifuge XL-I ProteomeLab Version (670nm). Performance tests were carried out for a multimodal polystyrene mix and non-spherical real-world materials. The intermediate precision was determined according to ISO 5725 with two grades of barium sulfate (nano and non-nano). Measurements were performed in daily triplicates for five days and evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA).
The radiation wavelengths of 470nm and 865nm have only a minor impact on the number-weighted median sizes, but clearly affects the intermediate precision that differs from 9.4% to 12.6% relative standard deviation. The disc centrifuge shows a precision (10.3 – 10.9%) and advantages in detecting nanoparticles but troubles with broadly distributed particle size distributions. The AUC shows a good precision (4.6 - 7.2%) but the lowest number-weighted median. The impact of sample preparation is obvious.
Analytical centrifugation can be recommended for the classification of materials according to the ECs recommendation for the definition of a nanomaterial.
This poster presents results of the European project NanoDefine, which has received funding from the EC's Seventh Framework Programme under Grant Agreement n° 604347.

Christian Ullmann, Frank Babick, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
Dora Mehn, Douglas Gilliland, JRC-IHCP, Ispra – Italy
Wendel Wohlleben, BASF SE, Friedrichshafen - Germany
060StanciuGeorgeRomaniaUniversity Politehnica of BucharestNanoscale imaging by using label free microscopy techniquesNano-manufacturing and nano-metrology, Technology and business networks in Europe – promoting innovation and industrial venturesNanoscale imaging by using label free microscopy techniques

George A. Stanciu , Catalin Stoichita, Stefan G. Stanciu Denis E. Tranca, Dumitru Vragneanu
Center for Microscopy-Microanalysis and Information Processing, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042, Bucharest, Romania

The objective of our work is connected with label free investigations at nanoscale by using a new multimodal microscopy system based on far field and near field label free techniques. The main applications of these techniques are on biological and biomedical samples, but they are also very useful for investigations in life sciences and material science. The system includes the techniques with hundred nanometers resolution and with few nanometers resolution too. Our system is able to image simultaneously the same sample area and in this way to give complementary sample information. The contrast mechanisms of the embedded imaging techniques provide complementary information which plays an important role in nanoscale imaging understanding and interpretation. The system was realized by upgrading a confocal microscope with far field label free techniques (second harmonic imagining, transient absorption microscopy) and near field techniques (near field imaging, second harmonic imaging). By using the images which we had from scattering- near field optical microscope we are able to investigate local dielectric function which is optical parameter giving very useful quantitative information on the biological structures. In our work a new multimodal microscopy system is reported as well as some qualitative and quantitative information on biological and biomedical samples.
Acknowledgements
This work has received support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2012-2015) under grant agreement no. 280804 (LANIR, www.lanir.eu), as well from the Romanian Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding through the research grants PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-1162 (NANOLASCAN) and PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-1803 (MICRONANO).
061FrijnsEvelienBelgiumVITOSAFE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NANO PRODUCTSNano-manufacturing and nano-metrology, Technology and business networks in Europe – promoting innovation and industrial venturesNanomaterials (NMs) present great opportunities for innovative products and technological solutions. Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are already used in hundreds of commercial products and industrial processes. To maximize the benefits of nanotechnology and avoid unwanted consequences, additional data are needed to better understand potential risks across the life cycle stages of novel nanoscale or nano-enabled materials and products.

The evaluation of risk should be made using the best available information, so that appropriate control strategies can be developed and implemented to minimize or reduce the risk. A combination of exposure monitoring & modelling, and hazard assessment can provide this information.

The first step in the risk assessment process includes the hazard identification which consists in collecting data from different sources to determine whether a substance is toxic. Data is gathered and examined form toxicological and epidemiological studies. If the hazard identification produces evidence of a hazard, then a hazard evaluation is performed. The purpose of this step is to calculate the dose at which a harmful effect will occur.
Exposure monitoring is the next step and includes the measuring of worker and consumer exposure to NMs, determining and understanding potential releases and identify control measures.
The last and final step is putting all of the information gathered from the other steps together to determine the actual risk of exposure to NMs. Based on information obtained from the risk assessment, the best way to address environmental contamination and exposure is identified in a risk management plan.

We will present case studies from industry handling nanoproducts covering one or more of the risk evaluation steps (Hazard, Exposure, Risk assessment, Risk Management):
• Case study 1: (Eco)toxicity testing of nano-Ag ink;
• Case study 2: Exposure assessment using a tiered approach in a nanopowder production plant;
• Case study 3: Implementation of the Advanced REACH Tool to estimate exposure;
• Case study 4: Implementation of Control Banding Tools for nanopowder handling.
062BulgariniAlessandraItalyUniversity of VeronaBiogenic Synthesis Of Selenium Nanoparticles By Two Bacterial Strains Differently Responding To Gram-Staining: Towards An Understanding Of Nature And Role Of Associated Surrounding Capping LayerNano-manufacturing and nano-metrology, Technology and business networks in Europe – promoting innovation and industrial venturesSelenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are claimed for a variety of applications due to their recognized antimicrobial activity. Notably, SeNPs of bacterial origin result more stable than the chemically synthesized counterpart, most likely because of the presence of an organic outer capping associated to the biogenic ones. Composition and function of such a surrounding layer are currently topics of growing interest.
SeNPs from Gram-positive Bacillus mycoides SeITE01 and Gram-negative Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02 were analyzed before and after the removal of the outer capping layer by means of detergent treatment. Furthermore, microscopy analysis and quantification assays for total proteins and carbohydrates were performed.
B. mycoides SeNPs from 24h incubation were 180nm in size. Particle instability, with formation of 700nm Se aggregates was observed as a consequence of detergent treatment.
Once treated with surfactant, S. maltophilia SeNPs originally 200nm in size coalesced into aggregates up to 300nm. TEM analyses confirmed particle aggregation due to a partial removal of their associated biomolecules.
Preliminary data evidenced a decrease in the protein content of SeNPs from both strains, (from 10.6 to less than 1?g proteins/mg of SeNPs in B. mycoides and from 34.1 to 19.5?g/mg of SeNPs in S. maltophilia). Carbohydrate content was also affected, with a slight decrease from 1.8 to 1.6 ?g/mg and an increase from 3.1 to more than 4.5?g/mg of SeNPs in B. mycoides and S. maltophilia, respectively.
063ULIERUDUMITRUROMANIASITEX 45 SRLDeveloping and implementation of a new generation of nanosafety assessment toolsNano-manufacturing and nano-metrology, Technology and business networks in Europe – promoting innovation and industrial venturesD.Ulieru1, S. Guesta Lopez 2,Oana-Maria Ulieru1, X.Vila1, A.Topor1
SITEX 45 SRL, R&D Department
1114,Ghica Tei Blvd,Bl.40,Ap.2,Dept.2,Bucharest 023709,Romania
2ICCRAM – Universidad de Burgos, R&D&I Building, 2nd floor, 63,
Plaza Misael Bañuelos s/n09001, Burgos (Spain)
Abstract: NANOGENTOOLS aimed of developing new methodologies for identification and control of hazards associated with nanomaterials, consumer and society safety.
Objectives The main objective of generating a common solid knowledge arising from the fruitful crosssectorial synergy between forefront research actors, in a cross-fertilization multidisciplinary approach that provide new tests and methodologies to assess the long term risks of nanomaterials (NMs) suitable for regulatory inclusion.
Methodology combines genomics (toxicogenomics), proteomics and multidisciplinary science (biophysics, molecular modelling, chemistry, bioinformatics, chemoinformatics) to develop fast in vitro high throughput (HTS) assays, with molecular based computational models for understanding of the molecular fundamentals of nanotoxicity, and initiate online nanosafety assays for SMEs use during product development.
Results Provide solutions for faster and more reliable assessment of NM toxicity and omics tools for predicting the toxicological properties of NMs.
Develop new bioinformatics methodologies capable of analyzing -omics data and create open database for the scientific community in collaboration with the EU Nanosafety Cluster.
Conduct research and training on biophysical techniques and mathematical models for accurate and fast nanotoxicity prediction linked to safety-by-design concepts.
Understand, build and improve the safe by design concept, with demonstration using carbon-based NMs and nanosensors and demonstrate translation across applications .
Conclusions NANOGENTOOLS realize the pre-validated tools for efficient cost-effective nanosafety assessment applicable to SMEs and suitable for incorporation into regulatory frameworks, demonstration of safety-by-design principles application for development of a CNT-based nanosensor and new knowledge into present regulations and EU roadmaps.
The project NANOGENTOOLS funding supported by EC H2020 Programme MSCA-RISE-2015
064SzatmáryLórantCzech RepublicÚJV ?ež, a.s.Removal of radioactive Cs(I) and Sr(II) from aqueous solutions by titanium dioxide nanomaterialNano-manufacturing and nano-metrology, Technology and business networks in Europe – promoting innovation and industrial venturesRemoval of radioactive Cs(I) and Sr(II) from aqueous solutions by titanium dioxide nanomaterial

Lórant Szatmáry1, Mária Bubeníková1, Petra Sala?ová1, Jan Šubrt2, Eva Pližingrová2, Monika Palkovská2
1Fuel Cycle Chemistry and Waste Management Division, ÚJV ?ež, a.s., 250 68 ?ež, Czech Republic
2Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the CAS, v.v.i., 250 68 ?ež, Czech Republic
e-mail: lorant.szatmary@ujv.cz

Radioactive waste, which is produced by nuclear power generation or other nuclear applications, contains large amount of radionuclides. A radioactive isotopes of caesium (Cs-137, half-life time 30 years) and strontium (Sr-90, half-life time 28 years) belong to the main fission products existing in the radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power plant and they are considered to be very dangerous to human health and environment.
The safe handling of the radioactive waste is recently one of the main problems. Processes such as ultrafiltration, ion exchange, sorption, evaporation, chemical precipitation are frequently used for the radioactive waste treatment.
In this work, new nanomaterial based on titanium dioxide was developed and tested for the sorption of hazardous radiocaesium and radiostrontium from aqueous solutions. The factors affecting the adsorption of selected radionuclides, such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, and metal ion concentration were evaluated. Furthermore X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal and thermogravimetry analyses (DTA/TGA) measurements were used in order to assess the physicochemical properties of the prepared nanomaterial.
The results showed that Cs(I) and Sr(II) radionuclides were efficiently adsorbed onto titanium dioxide nanomaterial. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the new nanomaterial is promising sorbent for radioactive Cs(I) and Sr(II) removal from radioactive wastewater.
Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project TH02020110.
065KoltsovIwonaPolandInstitute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw Nanostructure and properties of ZrO2-Al2O3 solid solution ob-tained by microwave hydrothermal method (MHSNano-manufacturing and nano-metrology, Technology and business networks in Europe – promoting innovation and industrial ventures Zirconia in tetragonal phase (t-ZrO2) is important for applications where materials with high hardness and high melting point are needed. In order to stabilize the tetragonal phase at room temperature various stabilizers are used. However, alumina (Al2O3) as a stabilizer of the tetragonal phase of zirconia is less expensive than the conventionally used ytria, and other rare earth ions. Since ZrO2-Al2O3 solid solution forms only when zirconia is in t-ZrO2, it opens a way to produce ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramics where the particle size remains in the nano-range.
In this work we present results for solid-solution ZrO2-Al2O3 nanopowers obtained by Microwave Hydrothermal Synthesis (MHS). The produced materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS), Transsmition Electron Microscopy (TEM), Specific surface area (BET), picnometric density, and zeta potentials (?). The grain size examination was undertaken by investigating broadening of diffraction lines (XRD) and by BET method.
We found that solid solution of ZrO2-Al3+ is created when Al2O3 addition during synthesis is in the range from 1 to 25 mol.%. BET, d and particle size values are dependent to chemical composition of ZrO2-Al2O3 solid solution.
Nano-range particle size of ZrO2-Al2O3, and their existence in solid solution change known phase diagram for ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramics. Characterization of novel ZrO2-Al2O3-solid solution nanopowders properties, and analysis of their nanostructure allowed to find practical application of these materials.
066ChoiDoosunRepublic of Korea(South Korea)Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials(KIMM)Method for fabrication of nano and micro structures on Polycarbonate surface using nano pores and micro moldNano-manufacturing and nano-metrology, Technology and business networks in Europe – promoting innovation and industrial ventures Title
Method for fabrication of nano and micro structures on Polycarbonate surface using nano pores and micro mold
Authors
Doo-Sun Choi1,2, Eunju Yeo1,2, Jeong Hwan Kim1,2, Kwanoh Kim1, Kyung-Hyun Whang1,
Yeong-Eun Yoo1,2 and Jae Sung Yoon1,2
1 Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 34103, Korea
2 Korea University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon 34113, Korea

Objectives
Recently, a lot of researches are motivated by the functional surfaces in nature, such as super-hydrophobicity of lotus leaf and adhesion of gecko. Many researches indicated that nano-micro hybrid structures are more effective in super-hydrophobic and adhesive characteristics than single micro or nano structure. We also obtained nanostructures with high aspect ratio through this method.

Methodology
We fabricated the nano-micro hybrid structures by hot embossing process using Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membrane. To fabricate the nanostructures, AAO membrane and Polycarbonate sheets were overlapped each other on hotplate. At this time, AAO membrane is used as mold, which has pores of 200 nm in diameter. And the polymer sheet, melt on the hotplate, is permeated into the pores of AAO membrane, thereby the nanostructures were obtained. After removing the AAO membrane using KOH solution, hot embossing process was applied again using another mold with micro patterns so that nano-micro hybrid structures could be fabricated finally.

Results
The nano structures with various aspect ratios have been fabricated by changing the temperature, which is the major process parameter in this study. Then, additional embossing process was applied so that the nano-micro hybrid structures could be fabricated.

Conclusions
We modulated the structure’s aspect ratio by adjusting process temperature. And we also fabricated various structures by applying multiple embossing processes. We are performing further experiments about wettability and adhesion based on this study. This study is expected to provide a fabrication method for a lot of functional surfaces with relatively simple and cost-effective processes.
067KarschDianaGermanyTU FreibergThermo-shock Sensors by Pyroelectric Delamination LayersNanotechnologies and advanced materials for machinery and process toolsSome crystals with a polar axis show the pyroelectric effect, i.e. a change of electrical polarization with temperature. The electrical polarization causes an external electrical field, but this is usually compensated by surface contaminations. Nevertheless, a change of polarization with temperature is not compensated instantaneously. For a short moment the electrical field can be used for applications, e.g. thermic sensors.
The thermo-shock sensor consists of a double layer of pyroelectric materials. The two layers are polarized in opposite directions. An increase of temperature causes an increase of polarization followed by an increase of repelling force. At a certain limit, the force becomes stronger than the bounding force of the two layers and one layer is irreversibly detached from the other. Therefore, the sensor consisting of such a double layer can be used to check the heating rate in transports or at unapproachable positions in devices like motors. With similar configurations the sensors can be sensitized for other physical parameters, e.g. to the temperature itself.
Here, some design examples and their manufacturing as well as suitable materials are discussed. Additionally, first calculations about the generated forces and subsequently the dimensioning of the Thermo-shock sensors are presented.
068RauchJean-YvesFranceUniversite Bourgogne Franche ComteNew generation of Nano factoriesNanotechnologies and advanced materials for machinery and process toolsNew generation of Nano factories
J.Y. Raucha, O. Lehmanna, J. Abadiea, P. Rougeota, J. Agnusa , M. A. Suarezb

Institut Femto-ST, aDept AS2M, bDept Optique PMD, UBFC



Objective: The aim of this study is to present the new generation of micro and nano factories under vacuum in order to produce new generations of sensors or tools by functionalizing, patterning, assembling with very high precision micro materials on top of metallic tips, or optical tips/fibers.
Methodology: Our nano factory called the µRobotex station consists of a Zeiss Auriga 60 dual beam SEM/FIB, in which we have added a GIS (Gas Injection System) and two micro robotic arms, the first one in open loop from Kleindiek and the second one, working in closed loop is a Smaract, 6 degrees of Freedom (DoF), homemade arm. By this way, with the 5DoF sample holder of the SEM, we have three ‘hands’ in the chamber totaling 14 DoF, and we are able to pattern, etch, cut, fold, assemble and weld with the combination of FIB and GIS a lot of different materials.
Results: Sensors, tools, nano electronics parts produced in clean room could be introduced in the µRobotex station and could be installed on top of an optical cleaved fiber or tip. The high precision of assembly, in the center of the fiber, is very powerful for optical requirements. We are able to build real three-dimensional micro or nano-systems with a robotic precision and robotic control of less than 10 nanometers [1]. With specific extended tip the station is able to manipulate carbon nanotubes for flexo-electricity measurements.
Conclusion: This new generation of nano factories can realize very small sensors/tools which could be introduced in blood, body, milk, water, aggressive solutions for tracing specific microorganisms, or micro/nano molecules, it’s also possible to measure electrical, thermal or magnetic effects..

Fig. 1. : Pattern open box from a thin membrane weld on top of optical fiber
Fig.2: Two tips for nano-robotic assemblypoint
[1] Influence of mechanical noise inside a scanning electron microscope M. Gaudenzi de Faria, Y. Haddab, Y. Le Gorrec, P Lutz1, d)
FEMTO-ST, Besancon, France, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2015 Apr;86(4):045105.
This work was supported by EQUIPEX ROBOTEX Project under Grant ANR-10-EQPX-44-01 and Labex Action Contract ANR-11-LABX-0001-01
069ZonaroEmanueleItalyUniversity of VeronaUse of selenium nanoparticles synthesized by bacterial strains as anti-biofilm agents for the control of surface microbial fouling in industrial contexts.Nanotechnologies and advanced materials for machinery and process toolsBiofilms are matrix-enclosed microbial aggregates that adhere to biological and even nonbiological surfaces. Prevention of biofilm formation is a significant challenge in the medical-healthcare field as well as in a variety of industrial processes where surfaces of pipelines, machineries, containers, and other devices are prone to the microbial colonization. Lack of both effectiveness and safety of traditional physical and chemical strategies so far adopted, including the recourse to antibiotic formulations, have driven exploration, development, and application of novel approaches for dispersing and/or inhibiting formation of biofilms.
Biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) synthesized by two bacterial strains (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02 and Bacillus mycoides SeITE01) were tested as anti-biofilm agents within different industrial domains. The above mentioned SeNPs had been previously shown to efficaciously inhibit biofilm establishment as well as to eradicate already formed microbial aggregations of reference and clinical isolates.
Firstly, biogenic SeNPs were evaluated for the ability to constrast biofilm formation by and disgregate well established biofilms of reference strains (Lactobacillus brevis DSM20054; Lactobacillus plantarum DSM20174, Enterococcus hirae DSM3320, Bacillus subtilis DSM347), commonly occurring as contaminants in industrial environments, meanly represented by food processing facilities. Biogenic SeNPs inhibited biofilm formation at concentrations between 100 to 150 mg/L and completely eradicate an already formed biofilm at concentrations between 100 to 200 mg/L.
In the continuation of this study, biogenic SeNPs will be tested on actual industrial surfaces and equipments burdened by microbial biofouling. Further expected results are either determination of concentrations or treatment duration times required for a radical removal of biofilms.
070VivancosJosé LuisSpainUniversitat Politecnica de ValenciaCore-shell SiC nanoparticles for Ti-based alloys to be processed by additive manufacturing techniquesNanotechnologies and advanced materials for machinery and process toolsObjectives. NANOTUN3D EU project [1] aims to improve the mechanical performance of Ti64 alloys by effective dispersion of SiC NPs. Unfortunately, to get an effective dispersion of nanoparticles in order to take maximum advantage, high energy processes are required and even these do not provide the expected mechanical performance. NANOTUN3D will provide an innovative concept to solve that limitation and improve the dispersion of SiC nanoparticles based on SiC-TiO2 core-shell structures
Methodology. The synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles was based on the direct formation of TiO2 oxides on top of SiC nanoparticles by acidic hydrolisis of precursors. Nanoparticulated SiC material as core was characterized by X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The homogeneity of the metal oxide (TiO2) shell has been analysed by means of the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques.
Results. Characterization revealed that SiC nanoparticles corresponds with desired ?-SiC phase with an average size around 42nm. STEM images of TiO2@SiC nanoparticles showed total overlapping of the two X-ray signals coming from Ti and silicon atoms. This study confirmed that TiO2 shell with 10 nm thickness was homogeneously distributed on SiC nanoparticles minimizing the addition of oxygen to final Ti6Al4V alloy.
Conclusions.- Homogeneous precipitation of TiO2 in the presence of the SiC nanoparticles produces a homogeneous thin shell which can contribute to improve their dispersion into Ti6Al4V metal powder for additive manufacturing techniques.
[1] NANOTUN3D project funded by EU Horizon 2020 Programme for Reseach and innovation under grant agreement nº 685952. http://www.nanotun3d.eu
071MaskalchukLeanidRussiaSorbents LLC“Nanostructured sorbents of radionuclides based on clay-salt slimes of JSC "Belaruskali" for nuclear-power engineering and environment remediation”Nanotechnologies and advanced materials for machinery and process tools Objectives. Currently the problem of radioactive waste safe management (purification and conditioning of liquid radioactive waste as well as long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste) is of a special relevance particularly in the context of the problem of radiation and radioecological safety after Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi NPP accidents and rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated soils and aquatic ecosystems.
Methodology. The developed project focused on the study of physicochemical and sorption properties of native and modified samples of clay-salt slimes (CSS) of JSC “Belaruskali” to develop a technology of nanostructured sorbents of radionuclides production for practical application in nuclear-power engineering and solving of existing radioecological problems.
Results. The research of the CSS samples of JSC "Belaruskali" (Soligorsk, Belarus) indicates that the main mineral phases are montmorillonite, illite, etc. CSS are characterized by a big sorption surface (caused by the nanoscale slaty structure) and have a high fixing ability towards radionuclide 137Cs (Fs = 75 – 99 wt% of 137Cs initial content in multicomponent simulative solutions). Along with the high fixing ability to 137Cs, CSS can fixate selectively of several other radionuclides (Sr, actinides, etc) as well. Due to the high content of sorption-active components (illite, montmorillonite) and the peculiarities of the morphological structure, CSS are considered as vastly effective selective sorbents of radionuclides.
Conclusions. As the results of CSS reprocessing, it is expected to obtain different types of nanostructured sorbents of radionuclides of multifunctional dedication with predetermined physicochemical and sorption properties: powder and granulated sorbents, buffer and backfill materials, soil amendments for rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated soils and aquatic ecosystem, etc.
072ManaiaAnaPortugalInstituto Pedro NunesSm@rt Edge – Intelligent tool developmentNanotechnologies and advanced materials for machinery and process toolsAuthors: A.Manaia*, J.P.Dias*, B.Martins*, A.Cavaleiro**
* Instituto Pedro Nunes, LED&MAT, Rua Pedro Nunes,3030 - 199 Coimbra, Portugal
**SEG-CEMMPRE, Universidade de Coimbra, 3030-201 Coimbra, Portugal

To survive in worldwide competition in the machining industry, European SME’s have changed their focus on machining high-end materials and products with high added value (e.g. precision components). At aerospace industry, which is the driver for machining of high-end applications, it is now recognised that the manufacturing costs are too expensive in the final product and the new frontier in high-end machining in Industry 4.0 must be quality and lowering production costs.
Sm@rtEge aims to develop/design a wear resistant thin film sensor for in-situ smart monitoring of machining operations, for optimizing production. The goal of the project is to achieve a continuous wireless temperature monitoring on the cutting edge of tools during a machining operation. The main benefit of this solution is a more sustainable production of machined parts through:
» Cutting process optimization;
» Increase tool lifetime by performing the cutting operations within the correct temperature range;
» Exact detection of end-of-life of the tool and changing tool just in time to achieve minimal scrap production;
» Early failure of the tool detection in order to avoid scrap of machined parts;
» Interactive system Tool/Machine.
Therefore, a machining tool with a thin film temperature sensor, with a minimum temperature range between 600°C and 900°C, deposited onto the clearance plane (close to the cutting edge) should be developed. Connecting lines towards the shaft of the tool have to be drawn, where a connection is established with a wireless data transmitter for continuous monitoring of the temperature during a machining operation.
073MeierFlorianGermanyPostnova Analytics GmbHA novel, straightforward and environmentally friendly analytical methodology for the verification of the “nano-labelling” of cosmetic productsNanotechnology and advanced materials in consumer goodsAmbiguous media coverage about the pros and cons of “nano-enhanced” consumer products in recent years has significantly propelled the discussion about their safety. With this ongoing discussion, regulatory authorities such as the European Commission launched several regulations dealing with the declaration of products, which contain nanomaterial ingredients. One is the “European Regulation EC No 12232009 of 30 November 2009 on cosmetic products, in which it is stated that “all ingredients present in the form of nanomaterials shall be clearly indicated in the list of ingredients. The names of such ingredients shall be followed by the word ‘nano’ in brackets” [1]. However, until now, there is still a clear lack of available analytical methodologies, which can provide a straightforward and reliable testing procedure for such products.
We herein present a novel approach to reliably assess the nanoparticulate content of commercially available sunscreens. This approach encompasses a mild and environmentally friendly removal of water and lipophilic sunscreen ingredients via inverse supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (scCO2) followed by the determination of the size distribution as well as the elemental composition of the nanoparticulate content via miniaturized Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation hyphenated with Multi-Angle Light Scattering and Inductively-coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (mAF4-MALS-ICP-MS) [2].
This setup enables a straightforward and clear distinction of “non-nano sunscreens” from “nano sunscreens” with high confidence under environmentally friendly conditions and has the potential to be the testing procedure of choice, when it comes to the verification of the “nano-labelling” of commercially available cosmetic products.


References
1. European Regulation EC No 12232009 of 30 November 2009 on cosmetic products.
2. Müller, D., Cattaneo S., Meier F. et al., Journal of Chromatography A, 2016, 1440, 31-36.
3. Müller, D., Cattaneo S., Meier F. et al., Journal of Chromatography A, 2017, manuscript in preparation.


Acknowledgements
Support by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (project SMART-NANO, NMP4-SE-2012-280779) is highly acknowledged.
074FrijnsEvelienBelgiumVITOASSESSING THE RELEASE OF NANOMATERIALS IN AIR FROM NANO-ENABLED PRODUCTS IN SUPPORT OF PRODUCT USENanotechnology and advanced materials in consumer goodsThe potential release of nanomaterials from nano-enabled products can vary throughout the life cycle of a product depending on the production and manufacturing processes, the use/misuse of the final product and end-of-life treatment. Release mechanisms can be categorized based on the driving forces that can cause the release, such as mechanical stress, chemical processes and incineration through human an environmental processes. This poster will present the characterization of nanomaterial release in air in four different case studies when simulating mechanical treatments to nano-enabled products.

The first experiment simulates the abrasion of a TiO2 nano-coating onto a tile. One of the most common tests for simulating the abrasive damage during the service life of components is the so called Taber test. Typical handling (cleaning, sliding, walking, polishing and so on) was simulated with this test.

Drilling in nanocomposite is the second experiment that is shown. An automated drill infrastructure was designed using a CNC assembly to achieve a controllable and repeatable setup. Blank and Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) reinforced epoxy was tested.

A spill test was designed to test possible airborne release of nanoparticles after spilling and cleaning of a nano Ag and nano Cu dispersion. Two spilling scenarios were performed: pouring a big pool on the lab table and spattering the dispersion with a pipette to create droplets. The spills were left for drying and nanoparticle release was measured during drying as such, wiping with a paper towel and scouring (worst-case).

The last experiment includes the simulation of sieving nano SiO2. Buckets filled with nano SiO2 were emptied on a vibrating sieve inside a test chamber with and without the use of a Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) system. The release of nano and micro sized particles was measured at three positions (upstream, above, downstream).

All experiments were performed in (nano)particle free test chambers at VITO to prevent interference from background aerosols. The sampling tubes were closely situated to the process and connected to real time (nano)aerosol instrumentation and samplers. Samples were further analysed by HR-TEM and/or (SP)-ICP-MS analysis.

These results from product testing can be integrated in a LCA study.
075KohlYvonneGermanyFraunhofer Institute for Biomedical EngineeringRisk assessment of nanomaterials in the environmentNanotechnology and advanced materials in consumer goodsTitle:
Risk assessment of nanomaterials in the environment

Authors:
Yvonne Kohl, Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Main division Medical Biotechnology, Sulzbach/Saar, Germany
Florian Meier, Postnova Analytics GmbH, Landsberg am Lech, Germany

Objectives:
Against the background of the steadily increasing use of nanomaterials (NM) in consumer goods, the question arises about the continuance of NM in the environment, the behavior of NM as well as the effect of daily NM exposure on organisms of the ecosystem as well as on humans. In order to answer this questions, ultrasensitive technologies are need to detect and quantify NM in environmentally relevant concentration ranges. Currently, there is still a huge lack of such technologies.
Methodology:
In addition to high-resolution optical determination methods, as SEM or TEM, field-flow fractionation (FFF) is used in combination with ICP-MS and DLS to detect NM in complex environmental matrices such as water samples, soil samples, soil eluates, human samples (urine and whole blood) in the environmentally relevant ppb range.
To assess the risk of NM in the human organism, advanced in vitro and ex vivo models were developed and the following endpoints were studied: barrier transport, stem cell differentiation, immune response, genotoxicity, cardiotoxicity. The ecotoxicological long-term effects of the NM were studied on the soil flora.
Results:
For different environmental matrices, such as running waters, soil, soil eluates, human urine and whole blood, NM in the ppb range (e.g. 14 ng AgNM/liter of river water) could already be quantified using FFF technologies. For the first time long-term studies with silver and polystyrene NM in environmentally relevant concentrations (ppb range) showed significant effects on the microbial flora of the soil and the functionality of soil enzymes. In vitro transport studies have showed that NM are transported and incorporated into the tissues. Polystyrene and silver NM seem to trigger changes in stem cell differentiation.
Conclusions:
The project NanoUmwelt, which is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany, developed new significant technologies for quantifying and characterizing NM in complex environmental matrices, which is essential for risk assessment of NM in the environment and contributes to safeguarding the handling of synthetic NM in the future.
076GeraciCorradaItalyInstitute of Biomolecular Chemistry - CNREncapsulation of essential oils in polymer-based nanocarriers for food applicationsNanotechnology and advanced materials in consumer goodsGiuseppe Granata, Grazia Maria Letizia Consoli, Edoardo Napoli, Viviana Cafiso, Stefania Stefani, and Corrada Geraci*
Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council (CNR), Via Paolo Gaifami 18, 95126 Catania, Italy,
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 97, 95123 Catania, Italy
*corrada.geraci@icb.cnr.it

OBJECTIVE
In recent years, there has been growing interest in essential oils (EOs) and their application in food preservation. This is due to the progressive increase in food-borne diseases and adverse consumer perception towards synthetic preservatives.
Nanoencapsulation of plant essential oils (GRAS substances) with antimicrobial activity represents a valid approach to overcome their low solubility in water, to
protect them from food interaction, and increase their concentration in food area, such as water-reach phase or liquid-solid interface, where microorganisms are more frequently located. Differently from microencapsulation, nanoencapsulation due to the subcellular size may increase the passive cellular absorbtion mechanisms and the bioactivity.
This work is focused on the polymeric-based nanocarries of two antimicrobial EOs from Origanum vulgare L. and Thymus capitatus L. in order to enhance their biological activity against food-borne pathogenic microorganisms.

METHODOLOGY
The nanocapsules (NCs) were formed by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer method. Size and polydispersity index of NCs were derived from DLS analysis. Encapsulation efficiency (EE%) was calculated by the amount of EO into NC, obtained from UV-Vis analysis. Stability was monitored overtime. The EOs were prepared from the air-dried aerial part of the plant by hydro-distillation. MIC and MBC determinations were carried out on three different microbial strains to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the nanostructured systems

RESULTS
The results obtained (EE between 80-85%, size range of 140-170 nm, stability overtime, and microbiological activity) are encouraging and make these EOs-NCs suitable for application in food preservation, topic of great interest in industrialized countries.
077ROMEROMARIA DOLORESSpainINESCOP. CENTRE FOR TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATIONMETALLIC COMPOUNDS REMOVAL FROM POLLUTED WATER AND ANTIBACTERIAL CAPACITY AS POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS FOR ZnO-SiO2 NANOCOMPOSITESNanotechnology and advanced materials in consumer goodsMETALLIC COMPOUNDS REMOVAL FROM POLLUTED WATER AND ANTIBACTERIAL CAPACITY AS POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS FOR ZnO-SiO2 NANOCOMPOSITES
M.D. Romero-Sánchez, F. Arán-Aís
INESCOP. Centre for Technology and Innovation. Polígono Industrial Campo Alto. 03600 Elda-Alicante-Spain. Tel. 34 965395213

Contact author: mdromero@inescop.es

ZnO has been demonstrated by different authors to be very effective for a wide number of applications, including removal of pollutants from water or bacteria growing inhibition (Gram- positive and Gram- negative), as proposed in this study. However, effectiveness of ZnO depends on a great number of experimental parameters during the synthesis procedure leading to different ZnO particle size, morphology or crystallinity.
Although SiO2 nanoparticles do not have antibacterial or depollutant capacity, in this study, ZnO-SiO2 composites using sol-gel methodology have been prepared to evaluate the influence of SiO2 as a high surface area material on the functional properties of ZnO. Different precursors for the synthesis of ZnO and different ZnO:SiO2 precursors ratio have been used.
ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposites have been characterized by different experimental techniques, mainly particle size and surface area, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Infrared spectroscopy (IR). Metallic compounds removal from polluted water has been evaluated by UV-Vis absorbance and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposites towards different bacteria have been evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results have shown that antibacterial activity of the ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposites increases when using a low SiO2 proportion, until a maximum SiO2 concentration. However, the presence of SiO2 in ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposites do not improve metallic compounds removal from polluted water compared to ZnO, although effectiveness depends on the pollutant concentration and polluted water treatment time.

Acknowledgements. Authors thank the partial financial support to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the project NANOMETAL (Ref. CTQ2013-40927-P).
078CalinManuelaRomaniaInstitute of Cellular Biology and Pathology "N. Simionescu"Investigation of cell death mechanism induced by silver- and silver nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human keratinocytesNanotechnology and advanced materials in consumer goodsInvestigation of cell death mechanism induced by silver- and silver nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human keratinocytes

Daniela Rebleanu1, Geanina Voicu1, Cristina Ana Constantinescu1, Mariana Deleanu, Carmen Gaidau2, Madalina Ignat2, Aurora Petica2, Manuela Calin1

1 Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology “Nicolae Simionescu” of Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania; 2R&D National Institute for Textiles and Leather (INCDTP)–Leather and Footwear Research Institute (ICPI) Division, Bucharest, Romania

Objective: The potential human health risks following the exposure to nanomaterials needs to be established. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced in human keratinocytes cells by Ag/TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), intended to be used for leather finishing. Methodology: Three formulations of NPs were prepared containing 0.53% (Ag/TiO2-NP1), 1.14% (Ag/TiO2-NP2) and 1.62% (Ag/N-TiO2-NP3), respectively of Ag on nanosized TiO2 and N-TiO2. The NPs were characterized for size and zeta potential. Human keratinocytes were exposed for 24 hours to different concentration of the three formulations of Ag/TiO2 NPs and cell death mechanisms activated by NPs were investigated by flow cytometry after staining with annexin V and propidium iodide.
Results: The size of NPs was below 90 nm and their zeta potential was above -40 mV. No significant influence on keratinocytes viability was observed, irrespective of NPs’ formulation, for concentrations up to 0.5 mg/ml. The exposure of keratinocytes to higher concentrations of NP1 and NP2 caused the activation of cell death mechanisms, thus at 1 mg/ml, about 90% of the cells were in late apoptosis/necrosis. In the case of cell exposure to 1mg/ml NP3, about 75% of cells were in early apoptosis, suggesting that NP3 is more cytofriendly as compared with NP1 and NP2.
Conclusions: High concentrations (above 0.5 mg/ml) of the developed NPs have a potential toxic effect on the skin and the main mechanism of death triggered by exposure of keratinocytes to Ag/TiO2 NPs is apoptosis.
Acknowledgments: The study was funded by UEFISCDI, PNIII_15/2015 under SIINN-ERA-NET Programme.
079CarvalhoSandraPortugalUniversity of MinhoLeather functionalized with antimicrobial nanoparticlesNanotechnology and advanced materials in consumer goodsObjectives
The proposed work aims to functionalize leathers for footwear industry with antimicrobial properties based on Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles.

Methodology
The synthesis of nanoparticles was carried out through an innovative and optimized method. This hydrothermal method is simple and inexpensive and prepares well crystalline materials.

Results
The structural characteristics were evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction and the results showed that the TiO2 nanoparticles are in the anatase phase, with dimensions below 10 nm.
Leather samples were functionalized with TiO2 and Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles, and it was possible to prove that these nanoparticles do not change the surface chemical composition of the leathers. These results were achieved by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy which showed the maintenance of characteristic chemical bands of leathers (-CH3 stretching vibration).
The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar diffusion tests tested against two bacteria species – a Gram negative and a Gram positive, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively and a fungus specie – Candida albicans. The results revealed that the leathers covered with Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles are antimicrobial. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was also assessed by MTS test using fibroblast 3T3 which shows the cell’s viability. This test has done since that these nanoparticles easily penetrated inside the human body. The results showed that the nanoparticles are non-cytotoxic.

Conclusions
The functionality of leathers covered with Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles was achieved obtaining leathers to the footwear industry.
080HaaseAndreaGermanyGerman Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR)ERANET SIINN NanoToxClass: Establishing NM grouping/ classification strategies according to toxicity and biological effects for supporting risk assessmentNanotechnology and advanced materials in consumer goodsMany products containing manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) have already entered the market. The majority of the current applications are based on a few material types only. However, by combining different core materials and by variations in size, shape and surface coating a large number of MNM variants is possible. Each variant has to be tested and assessed individually in a case-by-case approach, which renders testing and risk assessment laborious, time- and cost- intensive. Testing of all MNM variants for all possible endpoints is not feasible. One solution to overcome this problem is grouping of MNM. However, grouping principles are not yet well established for MNM and are only beginning to emerge.

The NanoToxClass project will develop grouping principles for MNM based on their physico-chemical properties under consideration of their toxicity and toxicity mechanisms. The grouping principles will be developed for a set of selected industrially relevant MNM. We build on existing data, i.e. from literature or from other, already finished projects and generate new data, where needed, in a targeted manner employing modern system biology techniques in combination with well established toxicological endpoints. We will perform transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics analysis of in vitro and in vivo samples. Omics approaches are in particular useful to investigate the mode of action and the underlying toxicity mechanisms. Thus, this project will also enhance the understanding with respect to in vitro and in vivo correlation. Grouping criteria and principles will be verified and validated with a few additional MNM.

www.nanotoxclass.eu

081SimõesAlda MariaPortugalInstituto Superior TécnicoStability and protective properties of graphene-Al2O3/TiO2 thin coating on stainless steel assessed electrochemically .Nanotechnology and advanced materials in consumer goodsAlda Simões1*, Jayanta Mondal2, Andreia Marques1, Lauri Aarik2, Jekaterina Kozlova2, Väino Sammelselg2,3
1 Instituto Superior Técnico and CQE-Centro de Química Estrutural, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal.
2 Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, 50411Tartu, Estonia
3 Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, 50411Tartu, Estonia

* Corresponding author E-mail: alda.simoes@tecnico.ulisboa.pt
Objectives: The work aims at the development of improving the corrosion protection of metal surfaces using a novel hybrid nano-structured coating combines layered oxides with a graphene layer.
Methodology: The composite hybrid coating consists of alternating laminate layers of metal oxides (Al2O3 and TiO2) deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition, onto a thin layer of reduced graphene oxide nanoplatelets (rGO), applied on AISI 304 stainless steel. The systems were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Electron Microscopy, and advanced electrochemical characterization techniques, namely Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Localized Impedance mapping. The study was carried out using an incremental additive approach.
Results: The results from open circuit monitoring and by voltammetric analysis shows a decrease of the corrosion rate in the graphene-metal oxide compared to the plain metal oxide coated substrates showed improved performance compared to the bare and graphene-coated systems. Further, the a.c. impedance of the system in the long immersion test confirmed the longer durability of the coated system.
Conclusions: The composite coating system improved the corrosion protection of the stainless steel, increasing the impedance of the interface and the pitting potential. The ease of nucleation of the metastable pits is hindered, resulting in a decreasing the rate of passive dissolution of the system. The graphene interlay seems to play an important role in the protection, likely by inhibiting the generation of local electric fields or by increasing the conductivity of the interface (otherwise formed by natural oxides of the substrate). The porosity of the new coating was estimated using electrodynamic data.
082Seyyed FakhrabadiMir MasoudItalyUniversity of PadovaCopolymer self-assembly of Fe-Porphyrin and Fullerene molecules on Ag(100) for novel data-storage devicesNanotechnology applications for electronicsObjectives
It is well known that the size of the information units and the distance between them has been dramatically shrinking for decades, allowing several “Moore’s-like Laws” to be formulated. Nowadays areal storage density in conventional hard disks (~1Tb/in2) requires the lateral size of a magnetic bit to be not larger than 25 nm. New technologies under study, such as Bit Patterned Media, may push that limit towards ~100 Tbit/in2, requiring magnetic islands with lateral sizes below 10 nm, nano-lithographied onto expensive perpendicular magnetization media. As the bits get smaller, it becomes harder to produce narrow distributions of them (both in size and magnetic properties). This paper reports the application of self-assembly technique to achieve the goal of magnetic islands for processors and data storage devices with dimensions in the range of a few nm.
Methodology
The molecules were deposited from a boron-nitride crucible inside an ultra high vacuum chamber on the Ag(100) surface and the analysis of the results was conducted using scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy.
Results
The paper presents the results of sequential deposition and self-assembly of Fe-Porphyrin and Fullerene molecules on the Ag(100) substrate. The Fe-Porphyrin molecules can act as the magnetic bits and the Fullerene molecules playing spacing roles among them to separate the Porphyrin molecules and the magnetic moments of the Fe atoms in their centers.
Conclusion
The paper presented successful copolymer self-assembly of the Fe-Porphyrin and Fullerene molecules on the Ag(100) surface for possible application in next-generation processing and data-storage devices.
083Leborán AlvarezVictorSpainUniversidad de Santiago de CompostelaThermomagnetic device based on Nernst effect for high sensitivity calorimetric applicationsNanotechnology applications for electronicsThe thermal counterpart of the Hall effect (i.e., the Nernst effect) in ferromagnetic metals shows an extreme sensitivity to thermal gradients, resulting in large asymmetric voltages under small temperature differences. We report thermomagnetic power experiments with a Nernst device fabricated with a ferrromagnetic line of NiFe (20 nm thick bar of 4 µmx28 µm), and explore its sensitivity for applications in microcalorimetry.
In order to test this Nernst based device two types have been fabricated: The devices showed a sensitivity in the order of hundreds of microWatts and response times in the order of miliseconds. Moreover, we observed that the sensitivity can be substantially increased by connecting several sensing elements in series. This magnetothermal technology opens up completely new prospects that can complement or replace the currently widespread Peltier based devices.
084NebojsaRomcevicSerbiaUniversity of BelgradeStructural changes in ZnO(Co) nanoparticles induced by different laser power: phonon propertiesNanotechnology applications for electronics Influence of laser power on nanocrystalline samples of ZnO(Co) prepared by commonly used wet chemistry method followed by calcination was investigated. Here we report the experimental spectra of non-resonant Raman scattering in the range between 100 cm–1 and 1600 cm–1, for a series of samples irradiated with four different laser power densities.
Increase in laser power density generally results in redshift and broadening of the peaks as well as formation of cobalt dimers. The four laser powers we used caused neither resonance nor thermal destruction. Relative intensity of the peaks does not depend monotonously on the laser power density and is different for ZnO, Co2 and for Co3O4 peaks. The relative intensity of ZnO peaks and Co2 peak increases while the one of Co3O4 peaks decreases with the increase in laser power density. Although intensity of Co3O4 peaks decreases, while intensity of formed Co2 peak increase overall intensity of all cobalt modes increase with increase in laser power density. Laser-induced local heating of samples results in the larger red shift for both types of peaks compared to the red shift caused by doping.
Three main mechanisms that can induce phonon peak shifts in ZnO nanostructures were discussed in [1], namely, spatial confinement, phonon localization by defects, and/or laser-induced heating in nanostructure ensembles. Our results indicate that the last two mechanisms induce redshift in the non-resonant Raman spectra.

[1] K.A. Alim, V.A. Fonoberov, and A.A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053103 (2005).
085MizseiJánosHungaryBudapest University of Technology and EconomicsThermal-electronic devices for the nano-electronics of the futureNanotechnology applications for electronicsIn present-day electronics information is represented by electronic states only, while thermal phenomena are parasitic and of a disturbing character. However, at nanometer scale thermal energy transport can be as quick as the electrical transport process. New possibilities could emerge in information processing, which make use of the thermal state (temperature) and the electrical state (current, voltage, charge) of the device for representation of different bits.
A new thermal electronic device (phonsistor = phonon transitor) has been invented and developed so as to realise this idea. Phonsistors consist of one (or more) dissipating element(s) and one (or more) thermally sensitive element(s) thermally coupled to each other. VO2 metal-insulator transition (MIT) capable resistors are suitable components as their resistance is extremely sensitive to temperature, especially around the transition temperature. These MIT resistors have thyristor like characteristics due to a self-heating effect, and the switching parameters can be controlled by the dissipating resistors.
A lateral thermal-electronic device (phonsistor) has been realised using VO2 thin layers as input/output dissipating and thermally sensitive resistors, and using a platinum thin layer for metallization and contacting. The main goal of this device fabrication is to demonstrate the feasibility of thermal-electronics. Input and output characteristics are plotted, both are thyristor type, and they control each other.
Based on results it can be concluded that the thermal-electronic conception works. Electrical properties, such as current gain, voltage gain, input/output resistances or transfer admittance depend strongly on the operating point of the phonsistor.
086SmirnovAliaksandrBelarusBelarusian State University of Informatics and RadioelectronicsNanomesh Coatings as Transparent Conductive ElectrodesNanotechnology applications for electronicsThis work presents a theoretical analysis of optical and electronic properties of nanomesh coatings. Experimentally we obtained Al nanomesh coatings through specific growth parameters of electrochemical treatment. Experimental data indicate that these nanomesh coatings can be used as transparent electrodes in visible range with the conductivity of a metal. Technology of Al nanomesh manufacturing allows to fabricate thin and ultrathin transparent conductive coatings with different sheet resistance and transparency. The fabrication cost is cheap because no any lithographic process is needed. So we can consider that these coatings will be able to replace really the common ITO or ZnOx coatings in modern optoelectronic devices.
087JedrykaEwaPolskaInstitute of Physics , Polish Academy of SciencesAdvanced characterization of the prospective spintronic material: Mn5Ge3/Ge(111) epitaxial filmsNanotechnology applications for electronicsObjectives: To understand local magnetic properties on Mn sites in epitaxial films of Mn5Ge3. This material has prospective spintronic applications due to high spin polarization (42%), strong uniaxial anisotropy and high Curie temperature (296 K) which can be further increased (up to 450 K) by the addition of carbon.
Methodology: 55Mn NMR experiments were performed as a function of sample thickness, in zero field and with external magnetic field applied in the film plane and perpendicular to it.
Results: NMR spectrum reveals two resonance lines corresponding to the two Mn sites in the crystal lattice (space group P63/mcm). Site 4(d) gives rise to the line centered at 207 MHz with well-resolved structure, evidencing strong electric field gradient. Local environment of the 6(g) sites has much lower symmetry and the corresponding NMR line (429 MHz) has no quadrupolar structure. With magnetic field applied in the film plane, this NMR line splits in two components, revealing strong hyperfine field anisotropy. The two sites differ also by their spin relaxation rate which is almost three times faster on MnII sites than on MnI. With the magnetic field applied in the out-of-plane direction, both NMR lines shift towards lower frequencies with a slope determined by 55Mn gyromagnetic ratio.
Conclusions: The main contribution to the local field on Mn nuclei originates from the Fermi contact term, thus the NMR frequency can be used as a probe of local magnetic moments and contribute to the understanding of the Curie temperature enhancement upon carbon doping.
088ULIERUDUMITRUROMANIASITEX 45 SRLGraphene based micro-sensors integrated into MEMS/CMOS platform for environmental monitoring applicationsNanotechnology applications for electronicsD.Ulieru, Oana-Maria Ulieru, X.Vila, , A.Topor
SITEX 45 SRL, R&D Department
114,Ghica Tei Blvd,Bl.40,Ap.2,Dept.2,Bucharest 023709,Romania
Abstract: The environment monitoring need the OEM equipment available for the EC consumer, so SITEX innovative electronic company deeply involved, to develop wearable or portable systems, to continuously monitor the environment informations and data.
Objectives Our in-house innovative concept is that can be readily shared and made available to the most quality of life, the keystone for this process to be activated is to make available technological innovations that can easily, reliably, support this new level of interaction between man and environment, so the problem of the technological exploitation of solid state sensors still open,
Methodology The main technological issues still to be solved being: (i)Energy consumption. (ii)Reliability. (iii)Supporting electronic with device drivers and the equipments for signal transmission and data management.
Results The concept of integrated platform results were as follows:
(A) an array of at least four low energy consuming chemical sensors based on graphene and/or GRMs and tuned for environmental monitoring that will be host
by (B) a board to electronically drive each one separately at different operating temperatures and for different times, pre-processing the sensor signals to drive a
(C) commercial board to process the information piping data, either wirelessly or not, to a smartphone or tablet .
Conclusions The designed APPs to reconstruct the personal exposure and share the captured information to the community for instant evaluation for alarming or suitable intervention actions. The prototype developed is sufficiently small as handheld to be wearable, wireless data. Funding supported by UEFISCDI national R&D Program PN-III-projects CERC-CO-PED-2016
089KusMahmutTurkeySELCUK UNIVERSITYPROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR REPRODUCIBLE AND STABLE PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLSNanotechnology applications for electronics Ilyas Deveci1, Esma Yenel1, Cisem K?rb?y?k1,2, Koray Kara1,3, Duygu Ak?n Kara1,4, Bilal Istabullu1, Gamze Dolek1, Mahmut Kus1,2
1Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Konya, Turkey
2Selcuk University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Konya, Turkey
3Selcuk University, Department of Physics, Konya, Turkey
4Mu?la University, Department of Physics, Mugla, Turkey
Recently perovskite based solar cell have been getting great attention due to its low cost and considerable conversation efficiency in comparison with commercial Silicon based technologies. However, perovskite solar cells are considered as an alternative for Silicon based PV technologies, there are still some problems must be solved before commercialization. Reproducibility and stability seems to be the main problem for this technology.
We focused on those problems with some alternative approach. Different solvent types for perovskite precursors, antisolvent washing depending on solvent type and amount, temperature factors are investigated. Firstly we optimized for reproducible devices and based on solvent process. Then, we focused on development of novel scaffold layers. We used some different mesoporous materials having high active surface area. We observed considerable results by using our novel scaffold layers, reproducibility problem is mostly solved. The most important observation is to increase the stability as well as efficiency in comparison with reference perovskite solar cells. We estimate that by some additional tests such as, large area application and long term stability, we may introduce a strong candidate for commercial perovskite solar cells.

Acknowledgement: We thank to Selcuk University BAP (PN: 16201051, 16201052, 15101011) for financial support to this works.
090NazarovaDimanaBulgariaInstitute of optical materials and technologies - BASDynamic spectra of absorbance and birefringence excited with laser light in azopolymers and azopolymers doped with ZnO nanoparticlesNanotechnology applications for electronics Objectives: ?ur study is dedicated to the dynamic spectra of birefringence in the azopolymer PAZO, induced at different wavelengths. Furthermore, we have also studied nanocomposites of azopolymer doped with ZnO nanoparticles (<50 nm).
Methodology: The birefringence is induced by three lasers with wavelengths 355 nm, 444 nm and 514 nm. We investigate the influence of nanoparticles (NP) with different concentrations. Dynamic spectra are measured by spectrometer HR4000. The azopolymer used for this study is the poly [1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo) benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt].
Results: The time cross section of the 3D data set ?n(?,t) allows to determine when the birefringence reaches saturation and for this point in time we can calculate a spectral cross section. The saturated or maximal values of the birefringence ?nmax at wavelength 635 nm from all the experiments are summarized. These indicate that highest birefringence ?nmax = 0.062 for ZnO NP with concentration 10% is induced at 444 nm as it has optimal absorbance in the films.
Conclusions: Our results indicate that doping the azopolymer PAZO with 10% ZnO NP leads to most significant increase of the birefringence compared with non-doped samples. As shown, the optimal wavelength for recording is in the shoulder of the absorbance band. PAZO and its nanocomposites with ZnO NP can be used for polarization diffractive elements, operating in the entire visible range.
Keywords: Azobenzene polymers? Photoinduced birefringence? Nanocomposite materials
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors are grateful for the financial support provided by Bulgarian Science Fund under the project ?? 08/10.
091Berberova - BuhovaNataliyaBulgariaInstitute of optical materials and technologies - BASPolarization holographic recording in azopolymerNanotechnology applications for electronicsObjectives: This research presents comparison between the parameters of polarization holographic gratings recorded in pure azopolymer and azopolymer based hybrid materials.
Methodology: The holographic recording is performed by laser with wavelength 491 nm and probed by laser at 635 nm. By using two ?/2 plates, beam polarizations were set at ±45° to the horizontal. In order to obtain holographic gratings with two different spatial frequencies, the angle between the recording beams was set to 20° and 40°. We investigate the influence of nanoparticles with different concentrations. To analyze the surface relief gratings formed in the films, atomic force microscope surface scans were made.
Results: The optimal concentration of the nanoparticles for nanocomposite is 10% and in this case the height of the relief is increased with 9 nm for spatial frequency 625 l/mm and with 42 nm for spatial frequency 1250 l/mm. The diffraction efficiency for the 10% doped samples is also enhanced with 20% for 625 l/mm grating and twice for the 1250 l/mm recording.
Conclusions: The results indicate that both the diffraction efficiencies and the height of the surface relief for the hybrid samples were enhanced with respect to the pure azopolymer films. The materials can be used for polarization diffractive elements in optoelectronics.
Keywords: Nanomaterials; Diffraction gratings? Azopolymer;
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors are grateful for the financial support provided by Bulgarian Science Fund under the project ?M 08/1.
092CapriaEnnioFranceEuropean Synchrotron (ESRF)High resolution 3D X-ray imaging for next generation micro-electronics packagingNanotechnology applications for electronicsWith a density of integration continuously increasing, driven by a need of an always growing power efficiency and performance, 3D integration represent today the most promising strategy to adopt for next generation packaging.

Although, various designs are considered, whatever the proposed technology, all of them share the same need to find critical defects (to be correlated with failure events) or to verify the compliance of structural elements in the bulk.

X-rays are a powerful tool for this kind of analysis, in particular because they allow a non-destructive approach. 3D characterisation of the device can be obtained, whilst keeping the device functionality, enabling multimodal characterisation and in-situ/in-operando analysis. However, today, the instruments delivering 3D X-ray imaging ("computed tomography") available for conventional laboratory purposes, offer a too poor resolution, compared to the needs of nano-electronics. Thanks to the power of synchrotron radiation, this limit can be now overcome.

This talk will illustrate the opportunities offered by synchrotron X-ray 3D imaging operated at the European Synchrotron in Grenoble (France) in collaboration with CEA-LETI. We will describe the unmatched characterisation opportunity offered by the new generation nano-tomography instruments on some standard 3DIC components. This presentation will demonstrate the power of this novel investigation tool, and their importance to boost the packaging innovation. Moreover, we will describe the complementarity between synchrotron X-ray 3D imaging and other traditional nano-characterisation techniques, to offer a multi-modal/multi-scale/multi-technique approach to the future challenges of characterisation in micro and nano-electronics.

Finally, we will introduce the Nanoelec Advanced Characterisation Platform.
093ProdanovDimiterBelgiumIMECSafety of nanomaterials in semiconductor industryNanotechnology applications for electronicsUnderstanding properties of engineered materials and how they affect biological systems, human health, and the environment is a relatively new area of scientific study which requires long term efforts. Timelines of obtaining better scientific understanding greatly mismatch those of product innovation and market distribution. Given the fact that manufacturing material at nanoscale in general is less demanding and given the fact that applications of nanomaterials in information and communication technologies, energy and life science applications are very promising, it is expected that product development employing nanomaterials will run ahead of establishing metrics for the occupational and environmental hazards of these materials, which presents a societal challenge.

Nanoelectronics relies on multiple semiconductor processes resulting in patterning of macroscopic objects, such as silicon wafers, at nanoscale level. Nanoparticle preparations in the form of slurries are used in chemical mechanical planarization process by all chip manufacturers. Identification of operations of concern and exposure scenarios is used in the risk assessment approach developed at present in the context of the H2020 project NanoStreeM (www.nanostreem.eu). Collected information is used for comparing different risk assessment approaches developed in the context of other EU nanosafety projects with the ones currently tested by the industry, in particular different control banding approaches. Based on the industry feedback the NanoStreeM project will propose a guidance for nano-hazard process risk assessment in the semiconductor industry.
094Sánchez-SilvaMaría LuzSpainUniversity of Castilla-La ManchaNanoclay reinforced aerogels as efficient building insulation materialsNanotechnology in buildings and construction industryNanoclay reinforced aerogels as efficient building insulation materials
Carolina Simón-Herreroa, Amaya Romerob, José L. Valverdec , Luz Sánchez-Silvad.
a,b,c,dDepartment of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla La Mancha, Av. Camilo Jose Cela 12, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
aCarolina.Simon@uclm.es, bAmaya.Romero@uclm.es, cJoseluis.Valverde@uclm.es,
dMarialuz.sanchez@uclm.es
Objectives
The aim of the work is the successful development of nanoclay reinforced aerogels by means of an environmental friendly freeze-drying process. In addition, it was carried out the complete characterization of the aerogels.
Methodology
Nanoclay reinforced aerogels were prepared by following a procedure based on that reported by Simón-Herrero et al. [1]. A solution of polymer (PVA) was mixed with a solution of nanoclay, both in deionised water. The nanoclay suspension in the polymer solution was poured into the trays of the freeze-dryer to carry out the drying. After drying, nanoclay aerogels were successfully obtained.
Results
Nanoclay reinforced aerogels were successfully obtained by means of freeze-drying process after an exhaustive study of the operation conditions of freeze-drying process. Operational parameters have a marked effect on the internal structure of the materials [1, 2]. Once aerogels were successfully obtained, a study of the thermal, physical and mechanical properties was carried out. It was demonstrated that the incorporation of nanoclay into the polymeric matrix improved the thermal behaviour. The third decomposition stage shifted to lower temperatures when decreasing the amount of nanoclay. Futhermore, nanoclay aerogels presented low values of thermal conductivity (0.03-0.05 W/m·K).
Conclusions
Nanoclay reinforced aerogels have been successfully synthesized using an environmentally friendly and low-cost process. Nanoclay based aerogels showed different thermal behaviour depending on the nanoclay amount. All samples exhibited low thermal conductivities. Therefore, these aerogels could be used in the building industry due to their excellent properties and the fact that their synthesis is suitable for scaling-up.

[1]C. Simón-Herrero, S. Caminero-Huertas, A. Romero, J. L. Valverde, L. Sánchez-Silva, Effects of freeze-drying conditions on aerogel properties, J. Mater. Sci. 51 (2016) 8977-8985.
[2] Y. Wang, M. D. Gawryla, D. A. Schiraldi, Effects of freezing conditions on the morphology and mechanical properties of clay and polymer/ clay aerogels, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.129 (2013) 1637-1641.
095BregoliLisaItalyWarrant Group srlEuropean Project NANO-CATHEDRAL: Nanomaterials for conservation of European architectural heritage developed by research on characteristic lithotypesNanotechnology in buildings and construction industryOBJECTIVES
The NANO-CATHEDRAL EU-funded project has the objective to provide innovative nano-structured conservation materials for the conservation of deteriorated stones in monumental buildings and cathedrals and high value contemporary architecture. The research focuses on lithotypes which are representative of different European geographical areas and styles and of different climate and environmental conditions, with the aim to preserve the originality of materials and develop a tailor-made approach to tackle the specific problems related to different lithotypes of marble, sandstone, limestone.
The Cathedral of Pisa and the Cathedral de Santa María of Vitoria-Gasteiz represent south European “Mediterranean” climate in coastal and continental regions. The Sint-Baafs Cathedral of Ghent, the Cathedral of St. Peter and Mary in Cologne and the St. Stephen's Cathedral, in Wien represent North European climate in coastal and continental regions. The Oslo Opera House, is an example of a contemporary building coated with white Carrara marble.
METHODOLOGY
Lithotypes of the partners buildings are analysed and studied to define the specific decay fenomena for each lithotype. Innovative protective and consolidant nano-materials are produced and then tested to select the most suitable products to tackle the specific needs. Selected products from the laboratory tests are then tried on selected trial areas to define which one is the best developed nano-material in real-life condititions.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
Main results from the first half of the project will be shown, confirming that the multidisciplinary approach and the inclusion of industrial partners directly involved in the production will allow the development of affordable methodologies.
096MarquesIvâniaPortugalInstituto Pedro NunesDEVELOPMENT OF A SUPERINSULATION AEROGEL FOAM FOR A BUILDING FAÇADE CLADDING PANELNanotechnology in buildings and construction industryAerogel sol-gel technology has been gaining great interest for energy-efficient building applications. In particular, silica-based aerogels exhibit very low thermal conductivity and bulk density ranks, high porosity and specific surface area levels and a hydrophobic character which makes them extremely attractive as highly efficient thermal insulation solutions for both new and old buildings. In the manufacturing of such aerogels, a complex supercritical fluid drying (SFD) process has been the most common method for removing the solvent from the wet gel, prohibiting its industrial upscale and inhibiting its exploitation potential. Aiming for a more simple and affordable alternative, ambient pressure drying (APD) techniques are currently being used to generate silica aerogels, capable of being foamed and extruded to create the insulation core of a new panel product – GELCLAD – engineered for the building façade market. This innovative advanced panel combines an outer protective wood plastic composite (WPC) and a nano superinsulation aerogel core, all in one ready-to-use panel solution designed for enhanced external insulation, protection and building aesthetics. Low-density GELCLAD silica aerogel granules have reached a thermal conductivity of 17 mW/mK, porosity levels of 84% and specific surface areas of 646 m2/g. In combination with eco-binders, the production of these aerogel foams have been successfully tested in laboratory conditions, while presenting thermal conductivities as low as 18 mW/mK and showing promising results on many building performance standards: compression strength of 130 kPa, cohesion strength of 45 kPa, diffusion resistance factor to water vapour of 25-30 and no ignition/flame spread or smouldering combustion.
097RomeoJamesItalyUniversity of CataniaReduction of environmental pollutants using photocatalytic action of nanoparticles, synthesized with eco-friendly method and their use in indoor areasNanotechnology in buildings and construction industryThe use of nanotechnology can fit a very concrete application also in everyday quality of life, for example for the reduction of environmental pollutants. The development of a new generation of photocatalytic systems is a principal goal for the European Union standards about environmental protection and sustainability. The aim of this work is to set up an economic and eco-friendly synthesis for the preparation of doped anatase nanoparticles and to study their photocatalytic action. The commercially used photocatalytic systems work well under UV light, but they do not work in the range of visible light. The authors have already shown that the use of metal oxides as dopants can increase the efficiency of these systems: they are able to degrade VOCs by using visible light and standard conditions. In this communication, the authors report the heterogeneous photocatalytic properties in gas and liquid phases in order to establish the kinetics and the efficiency of the systems. In particular, a new sol–gel synthesis of doped-anatase nanoparticles, using lithium and cobalt (II) salts, is reported in this work. Moreover, PEG nanoparticles have been used in order to obtain a stable porous structure of core shells. The doped photocatalyst was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), to estimate the real dimension of nanoparticles and of the aggregated structures, and to identify the chemical nature of the species in question. Surfaces investigations were also performed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).
098YigitDenizGermanyZoz GmbHDevelopment of EIGA bars for producing powder particles of Ti6Al4V nanomodified by gas atomization (NANOTUN3D European Project)Nanotechnology in printing and additive manufacturingThe European project NANOTUN3D aims to improve the mechanical performance of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloys with an effective dispersion of core-shell SiC nanoparticles and to process the improved alloy by additive manufacturing. One of the objectives is to manufacture a spherical nanocomposite powder (SiC nanoparticles reinforced Ti64 matrix) by EIGA (Electrode Induction melting Gas Atomization) process.
The raw material of the EIGA process is a bar of the nanocomposite material. Non-spherical nanocomposite powders of SiC reinforced Ti64 are manufactured at Zoz GmbH using a roll-mill RM1, and especially the Simoloyer® CM01 equipment, a design for High Kinetic Processing (HKP). The nanocomposite powder was shaped into bars following two methodologies. Samples were hot pressed into an EIGA bar of 55 mm diameter at 500°C for 5 min and 1000 MPa at Zoz GmbH. Bars of 40 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length were consolidated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) at 700ºC for 60 min and 120 MPa at CEIT.
Whereas the roll-milled samples only yield broken SiC agglomerates uniformly distributed over the surface of Ti64 particles, the HKP samples show a good dispersion of the nanoparticles within the Ti64 matrix. SiC did not react with the Ti alloy. A longer milling time for HKP improves the homogeneity, but also leads to higher Fe contamination from milling media.
It can be concluded that HKP leads to well-dispersed SiC nanoparticles in the Ti64 alloy. The obtained nanocomposite powder could be shaped into EIGA bars by both hot press and HIP.

NANOTUN3D project received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme for research and innovation under grant agreement no 685952. http://www.nanotun3d.eu
099ScholzSteffen GGermanyKarlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)Novel nano inks for additive manufacturing – is there a need for a safety risk management concept in 3D printing?Nanotechnology in printing and additive manufacturingAdditive manufacturing (AM) enables a new manufacturing paradigm, such as the rapid, distributive manufacture of complex 3D objects. Nanomaterials are in particular suitable for ink formulations to obtain functionalities embedded in the AM process. The DIMAP project (“Digital Materials for 3D Printing”) will advance the state-of-the art of AM via modifications of fundamental material properties by using nanomaterial-enhanced inks.

The impact of nanomaterials on environment and human health is widely discussed and the nanosafety aspect is a global topic today. At present, little is known about the release of nanomaterials from 3D printers. Within DIMAP a safe-by-design approach, including work place safety measures, risk analysis and life cycle assessment is going to be performed. Chemical and nanomaterial characteristics will be recorded in safety data sheets to ensure transparency and safe handling by all project partners. The next step is the risk analysis using personal monitoring devices to measure the release of nanoparticles while material preparation and during printing steps at, in and around the 3D printer. Finally, DIMAP will establish a safety guideline in order to support the industry applying AM in an even wider spectrum.
Work is currently at an early stage concerning the measurement of nanomaterials in the process chain of AM. First results show a slight to no release of particles during printing processes.
Conclusion: 3D printing processes per se are not harmful. There is no exposure of human to particles, so the risk is virtually zero.
DIMAP is funded under EU H2020-NMP-PILOTS-2015, GA 685937.
100PortolesLuisSpainAIDIMME - INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO METALMECÁNICO, MUEBLE, MADERA, EMBALAJE Y AFINES. Avda. Leonardo Da Vinci, 38. Parque Tecnológico de Valencia- 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain.Development of the complete workflow for producing and using a novel nanomodified Ti-based alloy for additive manufacturing in special applications.Nanotechnology in printing and additive manufacturingNANONTUN3D will take advantage of the possibilities of Additive Manufacturing (AM) together with the development of a specially tailored Ti- based nano-additived material to achieve dramatic improvements in structural parts of aero, space, mobility, and equipment sectors, reaching expected savings between 40% and 50% of material in critical applications. Inherent benefits of AM will be kept.

By adding nano-particles (NPs) to metal matrixes through an innovative core-shell treatment of the NPs that suits the Ti-matrix, whole life cycle of the NANOTUN3D material has been designed with AM processability in mind: safety and handling issues, processing in SLM/EBM technologies, postprocessing and eventual certification issues are dealt with. A whole Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) management system will also be developed, as well as all the protocols to start qualification/certification of material and process.

Some results are achieved over the objectives foreseen. Five core-shell systems developed in lab and industrial scale. Two routes for manufacturing powder particles are defined (GA/EIGA). Decision made on early screening of the mixed/consolidated samples on AM techniques (SLM/EBM). Qualification approach developed of material and process. Data on exposure and effects, together with available data from literature and physico-chemical characteristics is integrated to obtain a HSE management system.

NANOTUN3D addresses the combination of AM and nanotechnology for creating a breakthrough in morphology and property of structural parts. Not only ensuring an improved nano-additived material, but also taking advantage of topologic optimization and freeform manufacturing to sum up a dramatic saving of material and energy in AM parts.
101VerstraelenSandraBelgiumFlemish Institute for Technological ResearchHEALTH & SAFETY MANAGEMENT FOR A TITANIUM-BASED NANO-ADDITIVED MATERIAL: FROM CORE-SHELL PRODUCTION TO FINAL PARTSNanotechnology in printing and additive manufacturingIn the global nanosafety arena (e.g. as in the European projects NanoReg I and II, and ProSafe) huge efforts are being made to develop the concept of Safe-by-Design as a way to incorporate the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) aspects in an early stage of the innovation process in order to guarantee safety at the workplace, for consumers, and the environment.
VITO started to implement this concept in the NANOTUN3D project (www.nanotun3d.eu/; 2015-2019) concerning the development of nano-modified alloys for additive manufacturing. During nanoproduct development, possible exposure scenarios at each life cycle stage are identified. Along the life cycle, on-site exposure measurements are performed to determine and confirm hot spots of human exposure, and to indicate preventive measures. Impact on human health hazard is assessed by in vitro studies of nanomaterial interactions with human cells, and also ecological hazard is identified. These data on exposure and effects, together with available data from literature and physico-chemical characteristics is integrated to obtain a HSE management system.

This work has been performed within the project NANOTUN3D supported by the European Commission through the Horizon 2020 framework program for Research and Innovation (Grant Agreement 685952).
102ViciniIsellaBelgiumBewarrantDriving up Reliability and Efficiency of Additive Manufacturing (Acronym: DREAM)Nanotechnology in printing and additive manufacturingObjectives. The aim of DREAM is to significantly improve the performance of laser Powder Bed Fusion of titanium (PBF), aluminium, and steel components in terms of speed, costs, material use and reliabilit whilst producing work pieces with controlled and significantly increased fatigue life, as well with higher strength-to-weight ratios.
Methodology. In order to upscale the results and to reach an industrial relevant level of productivity, the project focuses on four main challenges: part modeling and topology optimization, raw material optimization to avoid powder contamination, process and software innovation, validation and standardisation of the process on prosthetic/automotive components and mould inserts for the different materials. Nanostructured metal powders will be investigated to improve the productivity of additive manufacturing (AM).
Results. The specific aim of DREAM is to significantly improve the performances of laser PBF of titanium, aluminium and steel components in the following terms: weight reduction (15%), production speed increase (5%), material cost reduction (10%), process productivity increase (+15%) and fatigue test increase (from 20% up to 120%) with a sustainable Life Cycle Approach.
Conclusions. Through innovations in part modelling, materials and additive processing, DREAM will add competitiveness at all steps of the manufacturing chain and it will reinforce EU industrial leadership in the AM sector consisting in the offer of: more efficient additive manufacturing systems; optimized on-demand services for the production of cost-effective components, novel engineering design services combining topology optimization and design; more lightweight and reliable products.
103MiddelkoopVesnaBelgiumFlemish Institute for Technological Research - VITO3D printed nanoparticle-bearing catalyst systems for chemistry and energy applicationsNanotechnology in printing and additive manufacturing
The burgeoning demand for 3D printing technologies is due to their suitability as a means of controllable deposition of support and active material in order to produce structured arrays. By employing existing and emerging 3D printing technologies such as 3D fiber deposition and binder jetting, we tailor the macro- and microstructure of the support and nanoparticle precursor distribution. We managed to directly print and pattern a variety of ceramic and metal nanomaterials (e.g. carbon, Al2O3, SiO2 supports in polymer matrix as well as multi-component metal oxides and nanocomposite catalysts, adsorbents and electrode materials) that showed the potential to achieve optimal functionality and design compared to the conventional randomly packed beds such as powders and granules. This provides further impetus to the development of a series of components for the monolithic/multi-channel reactor systems and devices with a high degree of flexibility for a wide range of chemistry and energy applications.

An example of this, that will be showcased, is a nanoparticle Pd catalyst, co-printed on porous activated carbon, that facilitates improved heat and mass transfer when innovatively employed in organic chemical synthesis. Another system is graphene-oxide based 3D printed nanocomposite catalyst for CO2 utilisation and fuel reforming. In addition, pertinent morphological and chemical information on support material and the nanoparticles is obtained by a combination of conventional characterisation and advanced 3D imaging techniques at multiple resolutions (X-ray computed tomography (CT), scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping) and fed back into the development of the multi-layered structures.
104CavaleiroAlbanoPortugalInstituto Pedro NunesNANOSENSING – Semiconductor nanocomposite thin films for LSPR gas sensing applicationsNanotechnology in smart green and integrated transportationThe main focus of the NANOSENSING project is to propose an alternative concept for gas sensors, with near¬single molecule sensitivity, especially tailored for environmental protection purposes in the automotive sector. The NANOSENSING project aims to develop low¬cost gas sensors, based on metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) structures, containing several types of noble metal (NM) nanoparticles (NPs). The materials pursued are abundant and all NPs will be fully encapsulated so there is no environmental risk posed by free nanoparticle material. The foreseen sensor applications have a vast worldwide market from which Portugal, but also other countries, can take precursor advantage both scientifically and economically.

In scientific terms, NANOSENSING integrates experimental and theoretical approaches in Physics, while addressing a specific application: gas sensing. The main background consist on the use of the so¬called Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR). The phenomenon enhances the near¬field amplitude at the resonance wavelength and is highly localized, decaying rapidly away from the nanoparticle/dielectric interface into the background. In modern technology, LSPR has been used to improve the surface sensitivity of spectroscopic measurements. However and despite the very few references, direct application of LSPR is highly promising for the detection of molecular adsorption.

The research will be focused on noble metal (NM) nanoparticles (NPs) such as Au and Ag, which are oxidation resistant and exhibit uniquely intense LSPR absorption peaks in the visible spectrum. The MOS structures will include oxides such as WO3, Al2O3, ZnO or TiO2, that show high sensitivity to the upper mentioned gases, which are central concerns not only in automotive industry, but also in several areas of industry and consumer products and health care.

Two complementary methods will be tested to produce the nanostructured films: i) the Co¬deposition using a cluster source, for Au or Ag, and reactive sputtering of metal targets in O2 atmosphere, for the matrix and? ii) Co¬sputtering using a high¬power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) source, for the noble metal target, and a conventional/HIPIMS source, for the dielectric matrix (in O2 atmosphere). Fundamental understanding of the LSPR effect and systematization of the consequent sensing ability will be carried out through atomistic calculations, while advanced spectroscopy and microscopy will be used to characterize and materials and their performance so that optimized systems/configurations can be designed and subsequently tested. A proof¬of¬concept will be implemented and the potential for practical application will be assessed through LSPR sensor prototypes.
105GrochowskaKatarzynaPolandThe Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery Polish Academy of SciencesComposite boron-doped diamond / TiO2 nanotube electrodes as electrochemical double layer capacitorsNanotechnology in smart green and integrated transportationElectrochemical double layer capacitors have remarkable properties like nearly unlimited cyclability, low temperature dependence, rapid storage and release of energy and charge/discharge with nearly 100% efficiency.
Thus, we report the novel composite nanostructures based on TiO2 nanotubes over-grown by thin boron-doped diamond film. The BDD-modified titania nanotubes structures show increase of sensitivity and performance when used as electrodes in electrochemical environments. The thin BDD films (~200-500 nm) were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW PA CVD) onto anodically fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays. Obtained material was characterized with a significantly enhanced conductivity and capacitance comparing to pristine titania. The electrochemical studies showed that the specific areal capacitance of TiO2/BDD raised up to 7.46 mF cm-2 whereas for the pure BDD it reached only 0.11 mF cm-2.
Electrochemical measurements were performed by the potentionstat-galvanostat system AutoLab PGStat 302N in a standard three-electrode assembly at 295 K for different types of Ti/TiO2/BDD layers and as reference Ti/BDD stayed as a working electrode. The counter electrode consisted of Pt mesh and an Ag/AgCl/0.1 M KCl electrode was the reference electrode. Electrodes with geometrical surface area of 1 cm2 were tested by cyclic voltammetry in solutions: 0.1M NaNO3 without and with 1 mM K3Fe(CN)6. Prior to taking electrochemical measurement, a pretreatment was performed in which working electrode was held at -0.1 V for 60 s.
It is assumed that it could be applied as an energy storage material for supercapacitors used for example in hybrid vehicles
106ViciniIsellaItalyWarrant Group SrlDevelopment of novel, high Performance hybrid Three Way Catalysts/Gasoline Particulate Filter Automotive after treatment systems by rational design: substitution of Noble Metals and Rare earth materials (Acronym: PARTIAL-PGMs)Nanotechnology in smart green and integrated transportationObjectives. PARTIAL-PGMs proposes an integrated approach for the rational design of innovative nanostructured materials of low/zero Noble Metals (PGMs) and Rare Earth Elements (REEs) content for a Three Way Catalysts (TWC)/Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) for automotive emissions after-treatment with continuous particulates combustion also focusing on identifying and fine-tuning the parameters involved in their preparation, characterization and performance evaluation under realistic conditions.
Methodology. PARTIAL-PGMs approach is broad, covering multiscale modeling, synthesis and nanomaterials’ characterization, performance evaluation under realistic conditions as well as recyclability and LCA. For the successful implementation of the project the interplay between disciplines is crucial for understanding catalysis on the atomic scale as well as for developing a new catalyst on the basis of fundamental knowledge. Rational design of catalysts has the potential to speed up the preparation of new materials, with tailored properties and eventually eliminate trial-and-error testing.
Results. The rational synthesis of nanomaterials will allow for a reduction of more than 35% in PGMs and 20% in REEs content, either by increasing performance or by their replacement with transition metals.
Conclusions. The compact nature of the new hybrid systems will allow their accommodation in smaller cars and to reduce cold start emissions, to anticipate both future emission control regulations and new advances in engines technology. Such R&D progress in autocatalysts is expected to pave the way to the widespread use of such low critical raw materials (CRMs) content materials in other catalytic applications.
107SideratouZiliGreeceNCSR DemokritosAdvanced nanostructured top-coatings with hydrophobic/icephobic propertiesNanotechnology in smart green and integrated transportationThe efficiency of modern transportation is severely compromised by the prevalence of turbulent drag and icing. The high level of turbulent skin-friction occurring on the surface of an aircraft is responsible for excess fuel consumption and increased carbon emissions. The environmental, political, and economic pressure to improve fuel efficiency and reduce carbon emissions associated with transportation denotes that reduction of turbulent skin-friction drag is a pressing engineering problem. The current study is focused on the development of hydrophobic/icephobic nanostructured top-coatings containing fluoro-functionalized nanoparticles to induce hydrophobic properties resulting in reduction of drag, of ice adhesion, and in an increase of UV-resistance.
To this end organic–inorganic hybrid silica nanoparticles were prepared through a biomimetic silicification process at ambient conditions in the presence of amino terminated dendritic polymer with fluorinated silica precursors. In addition, inorganic nanoparticles including aminoclays were functionalized with fluoroalkyl groups. Moreover, carbon based nanostructures (CNTs and GO) decorated with fluoro-containing polymers were also used as nanofillers.
The developed nanoparticles were used as nanofillers in commercial available silicon-based emulsions for the development of top-coats that can be applied on aircrafts. The developed coatings exhibited excellent hydrophobic, adhesion and UV-resistant properties as well as improved surface finish of painted aluminum plates. Ice adhesion experiments relieved a significant reduction in ice pull-off force compared to the uncoated aircraft paints. Drag reduction experiments are currently underway.
Acknowledgements
Funding support by EU under the FP7 PEOPLE-2012-IAPP-SANAD project (http://www.sanadproject.eu/) is acknowledged.
108KatsarosFotiosGreeceNCSR DemokritosNovel nanocomposites with micro slime layer control properties for fouling release paint applicationsNanotechnology in smart green and integrated transportationMarine biofouling is the general term describing the accumulation of living organisms on surfaces immersed in sea. Biofouling affects negatively the hydrodynamics of a ship’s hull by increasing drag and leads to increased propulsive power requirements, hence increased fuel consumption. Moreover, hull cleaning, paint removal and repainting, and associated environmental compliance measures all contribute significantly to the costs related to biofouling.
The aim was the scale-up production and commercialization of novel epoxy nanocomposite coatings based on polymeric and inorganic fillers. These patented novel fouling-release paints do not depend on biocides and their evaluation under real life conditions, showed that they offer improved static resistance to biofouling. Compared to the previous generation of fouling release coatings (micro slime control), they achieve biofouling removal at considerably lower speeds, they exhibit improved mechanical and scratch resistance properties while remaining cheap, easy to prepare, and environmentally friendly.
The key market for the new paints will be all commercial shipping fleets, including ferries, motor yachts, tankers, bulkers, gas carriers, container ships and dredgers. It is expected that the products will be quickly adopted for use in fast streaming boats (e.g. ferries and motor yachts) while in the next step their use will expand in slow streaming vessels (cargo ships). In all cases the commercialisation of the new products is envisaged through their adoption by (i) Shipyards (new-building, maintenance and repair) and (ii) Marine equipment industry (suppliers to shipyards).


Acknowledgements
Funding support by EU under the FP7 PEOPLE-2011-IAPP project “CARBONCOMP” (No. 286413) (http://www.carboncomp.eu/) is acknowledged.
109DemircanÖzgürTurkeyOndokuz May?s UniversityEffect of Integration of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) on the Tensile and Bending Properties of Thermoplastic CompositesNanotechnology in smart green and integrated transportationCarbon Nanotubes (CNTs), with their high strength, modulus, surface to volume ratio, and light weight, seem to be an ideal nanomaterials reinforcement for
composites. These strong nano particles are particularly attractive for next-generation thermoplastic-matrix composite materials for the aeronautics industries.
The purpose of this project is to investigate the mechanical properties of the thermoplastic composites before and after the addition of the CNTs to the
composites. Composite materials with commingled fibers (E glass fibers and Low Melting Polyethylene Terephthalate (LPET)) will be fabricated by the hot press
machine with specific temperature and pressure in the first stage of the experiment. The reinforcement fabric with the commingled fibers will be coated with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) by using spraying method. Different percentages of the MWCNTs will be used (0.4%, 0.5% and 0.6%). In the second stage of
experiments, the fabrication process of composites will be repeated as the previous experiment using the same commingled fibers but integrated with CNTs. The
produced composites will be tested by using the INSTRON 5982 100KN Tensile and Flexural Tests at Ondokuz May?s University (OMU) Central Laboratory (KITAM). It is expected that the addition of MWCNTs to the composite material will have an improvement in the tensile and flexural tests results of composites comparing to the results from the composites without CNTs. Hence, the integration of the MWCNTs in polymer has a great potential in the aeronautics industries than
conventional composite materials.
110DemircanÖzgürTurkeyOndokuz May?s UniversityImproving Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin by Reinforcing with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)Nanotechnology in smart green and integrated transportationEpoxy resins have been widely used for coatings, electronic materials, adhesives, and matrices for fiber-reinforced composites because of their outstanding
mechanical properties. When we use epoxy resin for fiber-reinforced composites in the primary and secondary structural parts of aerospaces, epoxy resin should
have high mechanical properties. CNTs exhibit an exceptionally high stiffness and strength. The combination of the material properties makes CNTs highly
desirable candidates to improve the properties of polymers.
Fabricating of the MWCNTs Non-reinforced epoxy resin: By using the ratio of 36 (hardener) / 100 (resin), 216 g hardener and 600 g epoxy resin were mixed and
poured into 300x400 mm2 glass mold. Then they were kept at room temperature for 24h for drying. After drying step, the epoxy resin removed from the mold and sample was put into the oven and were kept at 80°C temperature for 24h and cured to increase in the number of crosslinking.
Fabricating of the MWCNTs-Reinforced epoxy nanocomposite: The solvent was prepared by mixing of 2.5 ml Aceton and 1.4 gr MWCNTs powder and then it was
mixed by 20 gr Epoxy resin and hardener. Then, the same fabrication method of MWCNTs Non-reinforced epoxy resin was used for the MWCNTs reinforced epoxy nanocomposites.
The MWCNTs-Reinforced epoxy nanocomposites showed higher elasticity modulus (2.12 GPa) and tensile strength (59.1 MPa) than the MWCNTs Non-reinforced
epoxy polymers (1.39 GPa and 40.8 MPa respectively). Hence, the addition of the MWCNTs in epoxy resin has a great potential in the aeronautics industries than
conventional composite materials.
111PerezAngélicaSpainTechnological Centre LurederraIndustrial production of tailored nanoparticles by advanced, high-output, high-versatility Flame Spray PyrolysisPilot lines for industrial implementationDuring the project ADVANCE-FSP, funded by European Commission, was designed and constructed a prototype industrial Flame Spray Pyrolysis nanoparticle production line suitable to achieve at a continuous and trouble-free production level of 5kg/h the same results regarding nature and size range (10-20 nm) of nanoparticles as obtained in the small FSP laboratory reactors currently used, validating the technology developed by the production in industrial operating conditions of a wide diversity of high-quality nanoparticles such as simple and complex (mixed, doped, core-shell) nano-oxides for multi-sectorial applications such as automotive catalysts, energy catalysts, cosmetics and dental fillers, medicine and nutrition, phosphors (Y3Al5O12, Y2SiO5:Eu, CaSO4:Dy), pigments/paints, sensors for gas detection, photo-catalysis or lighting among others.
In FSP nanoparticle synthesis, liquid precursors dissolved in a fuel or solvent are dispersed through a nozzle. The resulting spray is ignited and sustained by a pilot flame. Particles are produced within the spray flame, with aerosol formation, droplet evaporation, combustion, coagulation, sintering and even surface growth occurring in parallel.
Main strengths of this technology are:
-Industrial production capacity up to 5 kg/h of nanoparticles
- Fully automated production line from feeding system to collection and filling of nanoparticles
-Large versatility in the nature of the nanoparticles: simple oxides, mixed and multicomponent oxides, doping, phosphates, carbonates…
- Monitoring and control of the process for high performance nanoparticles: size, crystallinity, purity.
112MelottiElenaItalyWarrant Group S.r.l.IZADI-NANO2INDUSTRY: a H2020 funded project to impulse the uptake of nanotechnology based solutionsPilot lines for industrial implementationObjectives: to contribute to overcome the barriers that nano-materials are facing to get introduced in the market, enabling the industrial scale production of new performance-enhanced components for the construction and agricultural machinery sector and the automotive one
Methodology: conventional materials and injection moulding, casting and coating manufacturing processes are improved by nanotechnology and combined in three innovative PILOTS at different existing production plants
• TRIBONANO Pilot (hydraulic motor): nanostructured powders for metallic cermet coatings and thermal spray technology for solid state deposition
• HARDCAST Pilot (hydraulic motor): nano-reinforcements added and dispersed via master-pellets in a new, low cost and safe gravity casting process
• ESTCRATCH Pilot (b-pillar): nanoreinforced thermoplastic based on masterbatches and inserts for injection moulds with nanotextured surfaces
Results: moving from TRL5 to TRL6, it has been demonstrated that we can have
• TRIBONANO Pilot: more durable metallic parts produced in a more efficient way (+10% wear resistance, -20% of costs associated to the finishing of the component, -15% mechanical friction losses, -15% of material used)
• HARDCAST Pilot: metallic components with improved durability and wear resistance, and an industrial machinery with increased mechanical efficiency and reduced pressure losses (+15% component efficiency, -15% of power losses, +15% of wear/temperature resistance)
• ESTCRATCH Pilot: aesthetic parts for the automotive sector with excellent mechanical properties and appearance, and light, weathering and scratch resistance (+50% material resistance, -20% component cost, improved recyclability, greener production process, more colour and functionality)
Conclusions: the integration of the abovementioned technologies and processes can allow a safe use of nanomaterials in production

Authors and Institutions
Cristina Elizetxea (1), Maider García de Cortázar (1), Ane Irazustabarrena (1), Isella Vicini (2), Elena Melotti (2)
(1) Fundacion Tecnalia Research & Innovation – San Sebastian (Spain)
(2) Warrant Group S.r.l. – Correggio (Italy)
113ReschSusanneAustriaBioNanoNet Forschungsgesellschaft mbHIndustrial Innovation: Real-Life Relevant Translation of Nanosafety into PilotsPilot lines for industrial implementationAs one of the most promising KETs, nanotechnology facilitates major breakthroughs in different application sectors. However, the nanoscale opens the doors to new or different potential risks that are still not fully explored. [1, 2] To ensure the responsible and safe use of nanomaterials (NMs) along the entire value chain of industrial innovation processes, safety-related issues have to keep pace with emerging technologies.
Two main bottlenecks that hinder the sustainable development of nanoinnovations are that (i) knowledge and information on nanosafety is still widely dispersed, and (ii) hubs of innovation and safety are not linked sufficiently. [3]

To create a cross-linking between safety work and industry sectors, BNN initiated a sub-working group named “Industrial Innovation Liaison (i2L)” as part of the WG9 “Safe-by-Design (SbD) and Industrial Innovation” [4] within the NanoSafety Cluster. This group will support technical development in the European Pilot Production Network (EPPN) by bringing together all nanosafety-relevant experts from pilot-line and innovation-led projects. The added value to all participating members is equal access to nanosafety knowhow and innovation-relevant information (e.g., needs, barriers; solutions). Furthermore, nanosafety experts increase societal and economic impact of their work by tackling the needs and barriers of safe innovations on their way to the market.


[1] Aruna, K. et al. "A Systematic Review on Nanomaterials: Properties, Synthesis and Applications." i-Manager's Journal on Future Engineering and Technology 11.2 (2015): 25
[2] Nel, A. et al. "Environmental health and safety considerations for nanotechnology." Accounts of chemical research 46.3 (2013): 605-606.
[3] Falk, Andreas, et al. "Research roadmap for nanosafety-Part III: Closer to the market (CTTM)." (2016).
[4] http://www.nanosafetycluster.eu/working-groups/industrial-innovation-liaison-i2l-wg10.html
114GhajneriFarnazSwedenSvenska Aerogel ABMarket applications and developments of a nano-material meeting environmental and cost efficiency in industrial processes.Pilot lines for industrial implementationMarket applications and developments of a nano-material meeting environmental and cost efficiency in industrial processes.
Svenska Aerogel (Sv.A.) is a research and development company that commercializes a patented environmentally friendly nano-material called Quartzene® for different industrial applications. The commercialization is done in close cooperation with industrial partners representing different key business areas. The company is selected as SME company for SME-Quartzene project funded by the EC, with objectives including validating Quartzene® in thermal insulation applications by 4 potential customers as an insulator material in cellulosic food containers, foamed concrete, mineral wool products and surface treatments for automotive industry. Quartzene® is a silica based nano/mesoporous material produced considering Aerogels as model materials with properties like Aerogels but considerably cheaper in cost. Its chemical properties, in terms of hydrophilicity/-phobicity, can be tailored to fit application. Due to its fascinating properties, it has a wide range of application areas and currently it is used for insulation, paint and coating, gas and liquid filtration applications; e.g. absorbing ethylene gas produced by groceries and fruits in food packaging. The material presents a cost-efficient advanced nano-structure supporting endless industrial application areas, and offering environmentally friendly solutions meeting sustainable future goals. To optimize Quartzene® properties for different applications, make the synthesis process reproducible and understand how the material’s structure is related to their properties, material analysis methods are studied to be custom-made for this very special class of materials in cooperation with universities, research institutes and industrial partners. Techniques that used for this approach are among others Electron Microscopy methods (SEM, FIB, TEM).
115PoenningerAnnelieseAustriaEV Group (EVG)Pilot Equipment for Micro- and NanopatterningPilot lines for industrial implementationNovel devices for application areas such as bio-technology, medicine, industrial internet of things, consumer products are facing requirements standard to semiconductor devices regarding the density of components, cost efficiency and performance per device. However, the new functionalities require specialized patterning technologies, i.e patterning large areas, nonplanar substrates and producing three-dimensional structures, which can be achieved by fabrication techniques like embossing and imprinting, the most flexible and powerful being Nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The pilot line, developed and implemented at EVG covers the needs of basic process development for different application areas as well as upscaling processes towards medium and high volume manufacturing. It consists of a line of automated and manual equipment for Step & Repeat mastering, working stamp production and replication of structures on substrates by NIL and hot embossing. A basic set-up is a manual mask aligner for contact and proximity lithography, which can be used also as a UV-NIL tool for hard stamps, soft stamps and as well for micro contact printing. In addition the SmartNIL tooling can be added to enable high quality full field NIL for wafers up to 6” and up to 200mm in automated systems. With this pilot line structures with critical dimension from millimeter down to 20nm and feature height up to the millimeter range can be replicated. The equipment and processes were demonstrated for microfluidic channels with high aspect ratios, convex and concave lenses, pyramidal structures, antireflective structures, line and space structures down to 100nm pitch, pillar and nano-dot arrays down to the 10 nm range.
116DrahorádJosefCzech RepublicFood Research Institute PragueMicronization of plant proteins by spray nebulisation dryingPilot lines for industrial implementationEngineering efforts of researches of the Food research institute Prague and the Czech Technical University in spray drying technologies led to introduction of a demonstrator ATOMIZER. The ATOMIZER demonstrator combines the spray drying technology, when the liquid to be dried is atomized by a rotary atomizer, with carbon dioxide assisted nebulization process in an original way. The atomization process takes place in two steps. In the first step, primary droplets are produced at the outlet of the rotary atomizer of special construction. In the second step, the primary droplets are divided in secondary droplets by the CO2 expansion from the inside of primary droplets. The secondary droplets, usually in the form of microbubbles and nanobubles, are rapidly dried by warm air stream at temperatures up to 60?C. A wide range of application forms - low density particles, composite particles, sterically stabilized liposomes, phytosomes, microencapsulated particles or microbial cells, solid dispersions, dried single and multiple emulsions, nano- and microfibers and other - can be produced by this process. Wide range of new unique particles has already been prepared, including nanostructured proteins of canola , hemp or sunflower seed. Nanostructured proteins exhibit a number of special properties relative to the proteins dried by a conventional spray drying process, such as improved solubility, dispersibility, foaming and emulsifying properties.
117KosanovicTatjanaGreeceArtia Nano Engineering and ConsultingNew protective composite coatings by pulse plating electrodepositionPilot lines for industrial implementationWear and corrosion of materials causes GDP losses of 3-4% and billions of Euros are spent annually on capital replacement and control methods for wear and corrosion infrastructure. In the protective coatings sector two main techniques dominate: hard chromium plating and thermal spray. Both of methods face serious environmental and hazard issues. Moreover, chromium trioxide use in the EU will be banned after September 2017.
The EU project “Procets” aims to deliver protective composite coatings covering a wide range of applications such as automotive, metal-working, oil and gas and cutting tools industries via thermal spray and electroplating methods using nano-particles and utilizing more environmental friendly materials, compared to the currently used.
Concerning electroplating method, metal matrix coatings plated from a chromium(VI) free electrolytes (e.g. Ni-P, Fe-P, Cr(III)) reinforced with nanoparticles (e.g. SiC, B4C, MoS2) are proposed as one of alternatives to hard chromium due to their good mechanical and chemical properties. In the first part of the project approach includes a qualification process among the most promising candidate matrices and combination of them with suitable nano-particles. Based on the mechanical performance of the composite coatings, selected nano-particles are being integrated into existing production lines after appropriate modifications.
The project is at its early stages and the first significant results are expected in the forthcoming tasks. The present contribution aims at giving an overview of the projects targets and methodologies planned to achieve these goals giving emphasis to the pulse current plating line for production of alternative to hard chrome, nanocomposite coatings.
“This project has received funding from the EU’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 686135”.
118BorrisJochenGermanyFraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films ISTAtmospheric pressure plasma-assisted CVD in the production of advanced healthcare care productsPilot lines for industrial implementationObjectives
The aim of the EU funded IP4Plasma project was to bridge the gap between IPR protected laboratory-scale innovations in the field of atmospheric pressure plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition technology and its industrial implementation for advanced surface treatment and nano-scale coating of materials.

Methodology
This was done by demonstrating the suitability of the technology for existing and new industrial applications in the medical products and diagnostics sector. The demonstrators mainly included the production of a quicker and cheaper rapid tuberculosis, manufacturing of advanced wound dressings with antibacterial properties.

Results
A new mobile plasma treatment system was designed, with better reliability, maintainability and reduced operational costs, making it better suited for industrial production. Four plasma systems were built, with treatment widths ranging from 200 to 1200 mm, and used in industrial demonstrations. On of the plasma systems was operated at a manufacturer of medical textiles and hygienic products, for industrial demonstration in the plasma-assisted deposition of antibacterial agents onto wound dressings. The sensitivity of the tuberculosis test produced in this work based on a plasma coating is at least ten times more sensitive than the standard lateral flow tests which are currently in use.

Conclusions
Market studies done during the project suggest there is a great market potential for all chosen applications. Activities are therefore focusing on making the progress achieved in this project known to the potential customers and to the general public.
119KotlíkPavelCzech Republic / FranceCharles University in Prague / Université de StrasbourgNormative Regimes of the Nanoworld in the Web of Science Database: From Self?Assembly to Open SciencePolicy frameworks and societal aspectsNanotechnology development stretches between worlds at the nanoscale and (future) society at large. It is governed by different normative regimes that take into account accompanying rules, standards, also social regulation laws, ethics and so on. In response to current analytic turn to studying multiple legal systems, laws of various forms and in various contexts, the presented study investigates normative regimes of the 'nanoworld' (keyword) in the Web of Science (WoS) database, approx. 250 articles, between the years 1990 and 2016. The initial content analysis conducted in the corpus supports model variability of the normative regimes, ranging from technical to social aspects. While perspective on separating these into technical and social regimes is suitable for the scientometric measures, these alone cannot explain flexibility and stability of certain figures, such as nanotechnology roadmaps, here included Moore's law and its break down. The corpus-based metaphor analysis then allows to uncover these as metaphors and narrative structures as they shift and get translated to different contexts. This is argued as a dynamic feature by which nanoworld is maintained as a coherent imaginary – connecting nanoscale and society within the root metaphor of 'creative evolution' (a cultural-genetic code). The metaphor imposes strategic options for the technology development, promoting adjustment that is associated with high financial and societal costs, but also more open science policy.
120NauKatjaGermanyKarlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)Informing the public on safety aspects of nanomaterials – DaNa2.0Policy frameworks and societal aspectsNanomaterials have found their way in our every day life, but the awareness of possible risks for humans and the environment increased during the last 15 years. The nanosafety aspect is a topic around the world. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and their application, and don’t know where to get such information. There is a high demand for answers to questions such as “Are nanomaterials per se dangerous?”.

Communication of scientific facts with the public is an ambitious task as complex issues need to be simplified whilst ensuring scientific correctness. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of nanotechnology, communication on the related safety aspects is particularly challenging. The DaNa2.0 project (data and knowledge on nanomaterials) is addressing these challenges by collecting and evaluating scientific results with a tool for quality evaluation and management of scientific publications: "Methodology for selection of publications". This checklist includes mandatory and desirable assessment criteria covering the topics physico-chemical characterisation, sample preparation and necessary (biological) testing parameters ensuring a thorough, comprehensive and fit-for-purpose assessment of the used nanomaterial in any given setting.

These evaluated research findings are presented in a worldwide unique knowledge base, correlating material properties and applications, tailored to interested citizens, students and stakeholders. The platform www.nanoobjects.info offers reliable data on the 26 most widely used nanomaterials together with answers to frequent questions, as well as on cross-cutting topics like nanomedicine.

DaNa2.0 is a national project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (FKZ 03X0131).
121BriffaSophie MarieUKUniversity of BirminghamEnvironmental transformations of zirconium doped ceria nanomaterials: supporting industry in developing reliable life-cycle assessment of their productsPolicy frameworks and societal aspectsIntroduction & Objectives: During their life-cycle many engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) undergo significant transformations that may modify their toxicity, behaviour, and fate in the environment. Assessing the environmental and human health implications of ENMs requires an understanding of the potential transformations. This work focuses on a series of commercial ceria and zirconium-doped ceria ENMs (commonly produced e.g. as catalytic converters) and their potential transformations to cerium phosphate (with the structure of monazite). It aims to further understand the transformations of these NMs in the environment (e.g. soil) resulting from phosphatisation.

Methodology: Commercial ceria and zirconium doped ceria samples were transformed by exposing to 1 and 5 mM pH adjusted (c. 5.5) solutions of KH2PO4, citric acid and ascorbic acid. Samples were analysed before addition, on immediate addition and after 7 and 21 days by means of DLS – size and zeta potential, UV/VIS, TEM, FT-IR, EDX and XRD to study the transformations occurring.

Results: Ceria and ceria-rich samples underwent transformations to larger particles growing into characteristic “sea urchin”/needle-like structures and compositionally transforming to phosphate-bearing phases. Transformations were dependent on time, ceria concentration and phosphate to ceria ratios. The degree of transformation varied depending on the cerium to zirconium ratio and the phosphate solution concentration. The pure zirconium oxide NMs showed no transformation.

Conclusion: Exposure to the phosphate solutions resulted in chemical and physical changes in all ceria containing samples. The presence of zirconium within the doped samples did not inhibit these transformations, but did not itself transform to a phosphate. When considering the life-cycle of their products, manufacturers should be aware of the likelihood and diversity of environmental transformations and any potential influence on end-of-life product safety.

Acknowledgement: The authors would like to thank FP7 funded projects: NanoMILE (Grant Agreement no 310451) and Endeavour Scholarships Scheme (Group B) for partly financing the research.
122BriffaSophie MarieUKUniversity of BirminghamManufactured Nanomaterial (MNM) libraries for nanosafety studies: Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) Capped Metal Oxide NanoparticlesPolicy frameworks and societal aspectsIntroduction & Objectives: The potential long-term environmental impact of MNMs remains poorly understood, and the field has yet to advance sufficiently due to challenges in characterisation and in systematically linking physicochemical properties to toxicity. It is therefore essential to develop reference NM libraries for nano(eco)toxicology. This work aimed to develop and fully characterise a library of comparable NMs with a range of core chemistries, but the same capping agent and size range, for use in toxicity studies to test the hypothesis that core chemistry is a primary toxicity-controlling factor.
Methodology: A library of metal oxide NMs was developed and extensively characterised1. The library contained 10K, 40K and 360K PVP capped ceria, zinc oxide and copper oxide NMs. These were characterised by DLS, UV/Vis, XPS, ICP-OES, FT-IR, TEM, STEM, EDX, XAS and EELS. Following this toxicity comparisons were carried out through Daphnia magna toxicity studies and high throughput screening (HTS).
Results: The tested protocol successfully created stable PVP capped metal oxide NMs of reproducible sizes (c. 5, 7 and 20 nm) where a common mechanism hypothesis holds true. Multi-method characterisation allowed for interpretation of physical and chemical properties including valency information. Results from toxicity studies showed comparable trends (Copper oxide>Zinc oxide>Ceria). HTS showed toxicity differences for different NM cores yet similar trends for differently sized NMs with the same metal oxide core.
Conclusion: Results suggest the synthesis success and showed its adaptability and scalability. Furthermore toxicity results allow for the initiation of correlation with metal core speciation. This library is a valuable tool towards predictive nanosafety and the future development of safe-by-design nanomaterials.

Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the financial support from FP7 funded projects: QNano (Grant Agreement no 262163), NanoMILE (Grant Agreement no 310451) and Endeavour Scholarships Scheme (Group B) as well as Diamond Light Source for access to beamline I18 (proposal no. SP12760).
1. Briffa, S. M.; Lynch, I.; Trouillet, V.; Bruns, M.; Hapiuk, D.; Liu, J.; Palmer, R. E.; Valsami-Jones, E., Development of scalable and versatile nanomaterial libraries for nanosafety studies: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped metal oxide nanoparticles. RSC Advances 2017, 7 (7), 3894-3906.
123CioffiMargheritaItalyD'Appolonia SpAFutureNanoNeeds safe and sustainable nano-enabled value-chains: market and industrial relevance, innovation potential and safety issuesPolicy frameworks and societal aspectsObjectives:
FutureNanoNeeds Project aims at developing a novel framework to enable classification, hazard and environmental impact assessment of the next generation nanomaterials prior to their widespread industrial use. In this framework, the aim of the present study is to analyse the eight value chains selected by the project.
Methodology:
The project focuses on: (1) nanomaterials on which the Consortium has significant synthesis and manufacturing capacities; (2) value chains of high social and economic impact for Europe in the medium-long term.
For each value chain, an overall assessment was performed, including evaluation of competitive advantage of selected nanomaterials, market analysis, patent and literature analysis, provisional identification of likely point of nano release along the value chain. FNN findings have been validated through an online survey.
Results:
The eight selected value chains are targeting the following markets: energy harvesting, Lithium-Ion batteries, thermoelectrics, nano-based lubricants, Additive Manufacturing, display technologies and other consumer electronics, antimicrobial coatings. This comprehensive analysis helped to enhance the development phase of the value chains and the innovation potential: for instance, the value chain on “silicon based nanomaterials for thermoelectrics” is more at lab-scale research stage whilst the value chain on “nanomaterials applied for Lithium-ion batteries” is at advanced industrial research level.
Conclusions
This study provides a compendium of information, which will aid the FutureNanoNeeds Consortium in the subsequent tasks to be performed enabling safety assessment and environmental impact of promising nanomaterials.
This work has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no 604602.
124BoothAndyNorwaySINTEFAn internationally benchmarked approach for standardised aquatic ecotoxicity testing of nanomaterialsPolicy frameworks and societal aspectsObjectives: Within the EU project NANoREG, we addressed the current need for exposure and (eco)toxicity methods that generate more reliable data for regulatory risk assessment of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). Key challenges identified were: (i) generation of reproducible MNM dispersions, and (ii) measurement of dynamic MNM properties during aquatic ecotoxicity tests.

Methods: We present a benchmarked standard operating procedure (SOP) for the calibration of probe sonicators that allows generation of comparable and reproducible dispersions. We also present a MNM dispersion SOP performance tested using 14 different reference materials representing metal, metal oxide and carbon nanotube MNMs. A technical guidance document (TGD) for the quantification of MNM exposure and fate in dispersions for aquatic ecotoxicological studies has been developed.

Results: Reproducible MNM dispersions can be generated, both with the same laboratory and across different laboratories, for all MNMs that are suitable to DLS (i.e. granular MNMs). The TGD uses a decision tree approach for identifying how and when to determine changes in MNM particle size and morphology over time, nominal and total measured MNM concentrations over time, MNM dissolution and changes in dissolution over time, and the amount of MNM lost from the exposure due to deposition.

Conclusions: Probe sonicator calibration SOP and the benchmarked NANoREG ECOTOX dispersion SOP represent an important step towards the standardisation of MNM dispersion preparation for environmental hazard and exposure studies. The exposure TGD offers a framework for MNM physicochemical characterisation within standard ecotoxicity tests in order to improve data interpretation and inter-laboratory comparison.

Acknowledgement – This study was supported by the EU FP7 NANoREG project (GA: 310584)
125BrüngelRaphaelGermanyUniversity of Applied Sciences and Arts DortmundA flexible and extensible Knowledge Base for Mapping of Measurement Technique Performances and Material Properties in the NanoDefinerPolicy frameworks and societal aspectsRaphael Brüngel* (1), Johannes Rückert* (1), Wendel Wohlleben (2), Frank Babick (3), Antoine Ghanem (4), Claire Gaillard (5), Agnieszka Mech (5), Hubert Rauscher (5), Stefan Weigel (6) and Christoph M. Friedrich# (1)

* contributed equally
# corresponding author: christoph.friedrich@fh-dortmund.de

(1) University of Applied Sciences and Arts Dortmund, Department of Computer Science, 44227 Dortmund, Germany (2) BASF SE, Material Physics Research, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany
(3) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute of Process Engineering and Environmental Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany (4) Solvay - R&I Centre Brussels, 1120 Brussels, Belgium
(5) European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Nanobiosciences Unit, 21027 Ispra, Italy (6) RIKILT Wageningen UR, Institute of Food Safety, 6708 WB, Netherlands

The NanoDefiner is a web-based decision support framework, developed to assist laboratory workers and experts during classification and registration of potential nanomaterials, following the European Commission's recommendation on nanomaterial definition (2011/696/EU).

Objectives: The attribute-based NanoDefiner knowledge base (KB) aims to provide standardized representation of default/material-dependent measurement technique (MT) performance profiles (MTPP) and material property profiles (MPP), maintainable by non-computer scientists.

Methodology: The KB was derived from templates for qualitative/quantitative MTPP description and a corresponding material classification system for MPP description. Continuous evaluation via multiple revision cycles ensured validity of structure and represented knowledge. MTPPs were assessed with literature analysis and lab experiments on representative test/reference materials.

Results: The spreadsheet-based KB currently represents 16 MTPPs and 17 MPPs of test/reference materials. It is used by the NanoDefiner for rule-based multi-criteria decision making on recommendations of suitable MTs, based on MTPP/MPP matching. Inheritance from default MTPPs allows definition of material-dependent MTPPs with little effort. Its integration into the NanoDefiner is established via an associated framework that enables access, matching in Drools and KB validation on application upstart for prevention of inconsistencies.

Conclusions: A robust, extensible and easily manageable KB, maintainable by non-computer scientists, was developed with support of experts from industry and academia. The KB with its framework is directly transferable into other environments.

The poster presentation will cover KB’s principles, structure, application and a NanoDefiner demo. Acknowledgement: NanoDefine (http://nanodefine.eu/), funded by FP7 (grant agreement No 604347-2).
126NenoVictorPortugalUnviersity of AverioNanotechnology Usability tool for optimization of nano-based productsPolicy frameworks and societal aspectsIndustrial digitalization and circular economy are examples of manufacturing and business models that will be of great relevance in the near future, given the need to increase the rate between the quantity of products produced/sold and the resources (materials, energy, etc.) consumption. The relevance of nanotechnology for innovation and for the improvement of existing products is nowadays a reality. However, nanoengineering effective and practical application is still a challenge that must be assumed to define guidelines of intervention to a deep collaboration between stakeholders and with the ones who bring the technology closer and effectively to the market.
A Nanotechnology Usability (NTU) tool was developed with the main objective to diminish the gap between nanotechnology-based products developed in R&D centers and its implementation and effective usage, promoting optimized selection of materials and the use of eco efficient production techniques. The NTU index is presented as a possible solution to be implemented for the increase of products on the market with an essence based on nanotechnology and being the result of an optimized selection of materials and the respective production techniques.
It is relevant to understand the all chain of nano-based product manufacturing, from the raw-material to the potential clients, considering existing nanomaterials, its characteristics, models, techniques and different processes for its production and/or manipulation, the current uncertainties related to nanotechnology, representing potential obstacles to a bigger usage. This was the main objective to develop the NTU tool that intends to gather information about a nano-based product with a specific application and increase its probability of success in the market, according to the society’s needs and demands and, preferably aligned to the societal challenges. The need of a dedicated analysis tool to support a confident decision making process of enhancing or investing in a nanotechnology product or service is highlighted.
Overall, the main purpose of the NTU tool is to gather information from suppliers, developers, manufactures and users on the different (nano)materials, processes and attained characteristics, as well as features of competing products, evaluate this data in order to score its adequacy, cost and eco & social issues and by this means create the environment for an informed decision making process.
127ReutherRudolfSwedenNordMiljö ABA new integrated measurement approach to support the implementation of the Commission recommendation for the definition of nanomaterialPolicy frameworks and societal aspects A new integrated measurement approach to support the implementation of the Commission recommendation for the definition of nanomaterial
Abstract topic
Policy frameworks and societal aspects
Abstract
A new integrated measurement approach to support the implementation of the Commission recommendation for the definition of nanomaterial

Hans Marvin1, Philipp Müller2, Katrin Löschner3, Dan Hodoroaba4, Michael Stintz5, Frank von der Kammer6, Robert Koeber7, Rudolf Reuther8, Hubert Rauscher9

1RIKILT, Wageningen UR, Netherlands; 2BASF SE, Germany; 3DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; 4Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und –pruefung (BAM), Germany; 5Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; 6University of Vienna, Austria; 7European Commission Joint Research Centre - Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Belgium; 8NordMiljö AB, Sweden; 9European Commission Joint Research Centre – Directorate Health, Consumers and Reference Materials, Italy.

Email: hans.marvin@wur.nl

The EC recommendation for the definition of nanomaterial [2011/696/EU] requires the quantitative size determination of constituent particles in samples down to 1 nm. Accordingly, a material is a nanomaterial if 50 % or more of the particles are in the size range 1-100 nm. The fact that engineered nanomaterials already exist in many industrial and consumer products challenges the development of measurement methods to reliably identify, characterize and quantify their occurrence as substance and in various matrices.
The EU FP7 NanoDefine project [www.nanodefine.eu] has addressed this challenge by developing a robust, readily implementable and cost-effective measurement strategy to obtain quantitative particle size distributions and to distinguish between nano and non-nano materials according to the EU definition. Based on a comprehensive evaluation of existing methodologies and intra- and inter-lab comparisons, validated measurement methods and instrument calibration procedures have been established to reliably measure the size of particles within 1-100 nm, and beyond, including different shapes, coatings and chemical compositions in industrial materials and consumer products. Case studies prove their applicability for various sectors, including food, pigments and cosmetics.
Main outcome is the establishment of an integrated tiered approach including rapid screening (tier 1) and confirmatory methods (tier 2), and a user manual to guide end-users, such as manufacturers, in selecting appropriate methods. Another main product is the “NanoDefiner” e-Tool allowing the standardised / semi-automated selection of appropriate methods for material classification according to the EU definition. Results also contribute to standardization efforts, such as CEN TC 352 or ISO TC 229.

The project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 604347
128Seoung HunBaeKoreaKorea Institute of Sicence & TechnologyA study on investigation and analysis for Korean's perception, trust, adoption intention of nanotechnologyPolicy frameworks and societal aspectsWe analyzed the perception and future adoption intention of nanotechnology for general public in Korea. The consumers generally appreciated the positive benefits of nanotechnology, but the level of understanding and the risk perception of nanotechnology was still low. Here, we suggested a customized promotion and policy support for the nanotechnology by analyzing a perception difference between different gender and age groups.